We Should All Care When Patients Get Too Many Z
Many people seem to believe that the Z-pak possesses magical qualities. Patients come in requesting it for the common cold, because it worked for them in the past. Not only do many believe it cures the common cold, but they think it can treat any infection. Have a urinary tract infection? Just ask your doctor to prescribe a Z-pak! Sniffles got you under the weather? Do the same!
Anyone who believes these myths is setting themselves up for bigger problems down the road. A common cold is caused by a virus, typically a rhinovirus, that is not treated with antibiotics. In fact, antibiotics have no powers over any viruses, mythical or otherwise. The best treatment for viruses is best-rest, fluids, and symptomatic care. It will get better in 2-3 days whether or not a patient takes antibiotics or not. The Z-pak is not the best antibiotic for all bacterial infections. It may have worked great for your ear infection but will not do much for a urinary tract infection because this is caused by different types of bacteria. The choice of antibiotic should be targeted at the specific kind of bacteria causing an infection.
Why should we care if someone takes a Z-pak if they dont really need it?
Side effects. All medications have side effects. Some of them can be quite benign but some can lead to lethal consequences.
Linda Girgis is a family physician who blogs at Dr. Linda.
What Should I Discuss With My Healthcare Provider Before Using Azithromycin
You should not use azithromycin if you are allergic to it, or if you have ever had:
- jaundice or liver problems caused by taking azithromycin or
- a severe allergic reaction to similar drugs such as clarithromycin, erythromycin, or telithromycin.
Azithromycin oral should not be used to treat pneumonia in people who have:
- cystic fibrosis
- an infection after being in a hospital
- an infection in the blood
- a weak immune system or
- in older adults and those who are ill or debilitated.
Tell your doctor if you have ever had:
- low levels of potassium in your blood
- a heart rhythm disorder or
- long QT syndrome .
It is not known whether this medicine is effective in treating genital ulcers in women.
Azithromycin is not approved for use by anyone younger than 6 months old. Azithromycin should not be used to treat a throat or tonsil infection in a child younger than 2 years old.
Urine Drug Concentration & Clinical Efficacy
Antimicrobial drugs must achieve an adequate urine concentration, which must be maintained for a sufficient time for a drug to be effective in treating UTI.16 It has been suggested that clinical efficacy is observed when the urine drug concentration is maintained at a concentration 4-fold higher than the isolates MIC throughout the time between doses.9
Experimental studies in rats have shown that the time for which the plasma drug concentration exceeds the isolates MIC correlates to the magnitude of bacterial colony count reduction the longer the time for which the drug concentration remained above the MIC, the lower the urine colony counts.12 Successful eradication of bacteria within the renal parenchyma or urinary bladder wall is correlated to the plasma, not urine, drug concentration.
When prescribing time-dependent antibiotics, shortening the interval between drug administration is the most effective method to allow the tissue/urine drug concentration to exceed the MIC for the majority of the dosing interval.
- Drug elimination follows first-order kinetics, where 50% of the drug is lost in 1 half-life.
- In contrast, doubling the dose would only add 1 half-life to the dosing interval.
- To add 2 half-lives to the dosing interval, the initial dose would have to be increased 4-fold. The peak serum drug concentration achieved by this approach may exceed the window of safety, producing adverse drug effects.
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See A Healthcare Provider
While UTIs arent usually a cause for major concern, if you dont get them treated, they can lead to more serious problems like a kidney infection. If you have a UTI, make an appointment with a healthcare provider as soon as possible. The fastest way to feel better is by taking an antibiotic to kill the bacteria causing your infection.
If going to see a provider in-person is not an option , there are plenty of telehealth services available that will allow you to set up a virtual appointment. Check out GoodRx Care for treatment of UTIs as well as many other medical conditions.
During your appointment, your provider will ask you questions about what symptoms you are experiencing and if you are prone to UTIs. You might be asked to provide a urine sample either in the office you are seen in or at a lab close to you. Lastly, your provider will prescribe you a course of antibiotics to get started on right away.
Some common antibiotics used for treating UTIs include nitrofurantoin , sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim , and ciprofloxacin . Typically, you only need to take them for 3 to 5 days, and most people start to feel relief within the first 2 to 3 days. Antibiotics can cause nausea, stomach upset, and diarrhea for many people. But, taking your dose with food can help lessen nausea and stomach upset, and taking a probiotic supplement like L. acidophilus can help with the diarrhea.
What Other Drugs Will Affect Azithromycin
Tell your doctor about all your other medicines, especially:
This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect azithromycin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.
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Data Collection And Analysis
Selection of trials
Two reviewers independently selected the trials using the defined inclusion criteria. In case of disagreement a third reviewer was involved. We performed a pilot test to the reproducibility of the decisions between the two reviewers.
Evaluation of quality
The quality of the trials included was assessed in terms of the randomisation process and internal and external validity, based on the criteria described by . The criteria used were:
Was the randomisation list concealed?
Allocation adequately concealed .
Method of allocation not specified .
Were patients and clinicians âblindâ to treatment?
Single or doubleblind.
Loss of less than 20%.
Loss of 20% or more.
Were patients analysed in the groups to which they were randomised?
Were groups similar at the start of the trial?
No difference in prognostic factors between treatment groups.
Difference in prognostic factors between treatment groups.
Aside from the experimental intervention, were the groups treated equally?
Two reviewers independently estimate the quality of included trials. An overall âquality scoreâ was not obtained. If heterogeneity was detected in the trials, the quality assessments were used to explain it. Quality was also measured though the Validated Quality Scale which provides a score ranging from 0 to 5 studies not reaching 3 points were considered to be of poor quality.
What Is The Strongest Antibiotic For A Uti
What antibiotics can treat a UTI? Not all antibiotics work for treating UTIs, but several do. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin are the most preferred antibiotics for treating a UTI.
Regarding this, What is best antibiotic for urinary tract infection? Drugs commonly recommended for simple UTIs include:
Can you flush out a UTI? Patients with urinary tract infection are usually advised to drink six to eight glasses of water every day to flush the infection out of the urinary system. The best way to get the infection out of the system is by drinking liquids until the urine is clear and the stream is forceful.
Accordingly, What is the difference between a UTI and a bladder infection?
A UTI is defined as an infection in one or more places in the urinary tractthe ureters, kidneys, urethra, and/or bladder. A bladder infection is a UTI thats only located in the bladder.
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Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
Complicated infections, which occur in men and women of any age, are also caused by bacteria but they tend to be more severe, more difficult to treat, and more likely to recur. They are often the result of:
- An anatomical or structural abnormality that impairs the ability of the urinary tract to clear out urine and therefore bacteria
- Catheter use in the hospital setting or long-term indwelling catheter in the outpatient setting
- Bladder and kidney dysfunction, or kidney transplant
- Immunocompromised state caused by other conditions
Recurrences can occur in people with complicated UTI if the underlying structural, anatomical, or immune abnormalities are not corrected.
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Antibiotics That Shouldnt Be A First Choice For Uncomplicated Utis
Other antibiotics appear to be overused, and some physicians may misuse non-recommended antibiotics as first-line treatments. Ciprofloxacin is used in 35% of uncomplicated UTIs, while levofloxacin is used in 2%. These antibiotics can be important treatments in some cases of more complicated UTIs, but can have dangerous side effects.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that the use of these drugs should be restricted because of their potentially disabling side effects involving tendons, muscles, joints, nerves and the central nervous system. Additionally, in many parts of the country, bacteria commonly causing UTIs are becoming resistant to these antibiotics.
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You Can Get A Uti From Having Sex
There is a clear link between UTIs and sex. For many people, having sex causes UTIs to occur over and over again. Data shows that UTI symptoms most often begin about 2 days after having sexual intercourse.
Sex can cause a UTI. This is because the friction involved in sexual activity pushes bacteria toward the urethra. Anything that allows or encourages bacteria to enter the urinary tract increases the risk of UTI.
UTIs should be treated to keep them from getting worse. This usually requires a prescription for antibiotics. Since going to see your healthcare provider every time you have sex isnt a reasonable option for many people, its helpful to think ahead. There are things you can do to prevent a UTI before it starts.
Ear Infection And Uti At Same Time: Causes Symptoms & Treatment
Although its quite possible for you to have an ear infection and UTI at the same time, chances are that you wont be able to pass either one out through your cough, sneeze, or other nasal symptoms.
If you are experiencing severe ear pain,or if you have a fever and chills, and you think it could be the onset of an ear infection, then its important to see your doctor as quickly as possible.
He or she can order tests to see if you have an ear infection.
Your ear pain might be caused by irritation, such as when you get a foreign object stuck in your ear.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Azithromycin
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reactionor a severe skin reaction .
Seek medical treatment if you have a serious drug reaction that can affect many parts of your body. Symptoms may include: skin rash, fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, severe weakness, unusual bruising, or yellowing of your skin or eyes.
- liver problemsnausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain , tiredness, itching, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice
Older adults may be more likely to have side effects on heart rhythm, including a life-threatening fast heart rate.
Common side effects may include:
- nausea, vomiting or
- stomach pain.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
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When You Need Themand When You Dont
Antibiotics are medicines that can kill bacteria. Doctors often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections . The main symptoms of UTIs are:
- A burning feeling when you urinate.
- A strong urge to urinate often.
However, many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms. This can do more harm than good. Heres why:
Antibiotics usually dont help when there are no UTI symptoms.
Older people often have some bacteria in their urine. This does not mean they have a UTI. But doctors may find the bacteria in a routine test and give antibiotics anyway.
The antibiotic does not help these patients.
- It does not prevent UTIs.
- It does not help bladder control.
- It does not help memory problems or balance.
Most older people should not be tested or treated for a UTI unless they have UTI symptoms. And if you do have a UTI and get treated, you usually dont need another test to find out if you are cured. You should only get tested or treated if UTI symptoms come back.
Antibiotics have side effects.
Antibiotics can have side effects, such as fever, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, tendon ruptures, and nerve damage.
Antibiotics can cause future problems.
Antibiotics can kill friendly germs in the body. This can lead to vaginal yeast infections. It can also lead to other infections, and severe diarrhea, hospitalization, and even death.
Antibiotics can be a waste of money.
When should older people take antibiotics for a UTI?
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Monitoring Response To Therapy
Patients with a simple, uncomplicated UTI may not require rigorous monitoring. However, patients with complicated, relapsing, or recurrent infections should be monitored very closely. The following protocol is recommended to monitor response to therapy in patients with relapsing, recurrent, or refractory UTI.3
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Understanding Drug Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Is Essential When Determining The Most Effective Antibiotic Therapy For Utis In Dogs And Cats
Dr. Foster is an internist and Director of the Extracorporeal Therapies Service at Friendship Hospital for Animals in Washington, D.C. He has lectured around the world on various renal and urinary diseases and authored numerous manuscripts and book chapters on these topics. He is the current president of the American Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology.
Urinary tract infections are common in small animal practice it has been reported that up to 27% of dogs will develop infection at some time in their lives.1
Most UTIs are successfully treated with commonly used drugs, dosages, and administration intervals. However, infections can be challenging to effectively treat when they involve the kidneys and prostate . In addition, it can be difficult to create an appropriate antibiotic prescription in patients with kidney disease due to reduced drug clearance.
Understanding drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is essential when determining the most effective antibiotic therapy. In addition, successful antimicrobial therapy requires appropriate choice of antibiotic, including dose, frequency, and duration .
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Zithromax Information Dosage Cost How To Get A Prescription
Azithromycin is an antibiotica medication for fighting bacteria. It belongs to the macrolide family of antibiotics, which work by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular components for making proteins. Stopping the cell from making protein stops cellular growth and reproduction, ending infection. This antibiotic is effective against a wide array of bacterial species and types of infection. It is used against certain eye infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin infections, sexually transmitted diseases , sinusitis, throat infections, ear infections, Lyme disease, and urinary tract infections. Azithromycin works quickly, allowing patients often to feel better one day after beginning treatment, and able to return to work or school after 3 days.
Azithromycin is available as oral tablets or solution. The usual dose is 250-500 once a day. The Z-pack contains the 6 pills which are taken over a period of usually 5 days .
Common side effects:
Do You Need To See A Doctor To Get Antibiotics For A Uti
You need to speak with your doctor or a licensed medical professional to be prescribed antibiotics for a UTI. This can usually be done in person, at the doctor, or over the phone.
If this is your first UTI or your symptoms are severe it may be helpful to get treated in person to rule out the possibility of sexually transmitted infections.
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Who Can And Cannot Take Azithromycin
Azithromycin can be taken by adults and children.
It isn’t suitable for some people. To make sure azithromycin is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
- had an allergic reaction to azithromycin or any other medicines in the past
- liver or kidney problems
- heart problems, including irregular heartbeats
- had diarrhoea when you have taken antibiotics before
- myasthenia gravis – azithromycin can worsen the symptoms of this muscle-weakening illness
- diabetes – azithromycin liquid contains sugar