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List Five Bacteria That Can Cause Urinary Tract Infection

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Symptoms Of Utis In Older People

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

The classic lower UTI symptoms of pain, frequency, or urgency and upper tract symptoms of flank pain, chills, and tenderness may be absent or altered in older people with UTIs.

Symptoms of UTIs that may occur in seniors but not in younger adults include mental changes or confusion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, or cough and shortness of breath. A preexisting health condition may further confuse the picture and make diagnosis difficult.

Reasons Why You Might Get Recurring Utis

Many women who get a urinary tract infection may get one again at some point in their lives. In fact, one in five women experience recurrent UTIsan infection that occurs two times or more within six months or at least three times in a year. Men can get recurrent UTIs too, but it is not as common and is often due to some type of urinary tract blockage.

Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections

The majority of cases of cystitis are caused by Escherichia coli , a species of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Some women are prone to developing UTIs after sexual intercourse. Postmenopausal women are at higher risk for developing UTIs because of the impact of the lack of estrogen on the vaginal environment. Men with enlarged prostates and urinary retention are also more prone to developing UTIs. People with indwelling catheters, as well as immunocompromised people, are also susceptible to developing infections of the urinary tract. In many cases the etiology is unknown.

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Things You Can Do Yourself

To help ease symptoms of a urinary tract infection :

  • takeparacetamolup to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
  • you can give childrenliquid paracetamol
  • rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day
  • avoid having sex

Some people take cystitis sachets or cranberry drinks and products every day to prevent UTIs from happening, which may help. But there’s no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat a UTI if the infection has already started.

What Causes Urinary Tract Infections

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Normal urine is sterile and contains fluids, salts, and waste products. It does not contain bacteria, viruses, or fungi. A UTI occurs when germs, most often bacteria from the digestive tract, get into the opening of the urethra and start to multiply.

Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.

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You Dont Pee After Sex

The threat of getting a UTI shouldnt stop you from getting it on. But that doesnt mean resigning yourself to the afterburn.

One simple way to cut your risk: Head to the potty after youve finished your romp. Youll possibly flush out the bacteria that may have made their way into your urinary tract. Urinary Tract Infection. .

Youve Got A Cold The Flu Or Allergies

You may be tempted to curse your seasonal sneezes, a cold, or the dreaded flu for making your life even more miserable with a UTI, but these ailments arent the cause. The meds you take to manage symptoms could be.

Though theyre the bomb at keeping your runny or stuffy nose in check, antihistamines and decongestants might make you go less by causing urinary retention. And see No. 6 that may lead to a UTI.

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Can A Urinary Tract Infection Be Prevented

Many methods have been suggested to reduce or prevent UTIs. The single most important prevention measure is increased fluid intake. Many people develop UTIs simply because they do not drink enough fluids.

Incomplete bladder emptying and resisting the normal urge to urinate can allow pathogens to survive and replicate easier in a non-flowing system. Some clinicians recommend washing before and urinating soon after sex to reduce the chance of urethritis and cystitis.

Many clinicians suggest that anything that causes a person irritation in the genital area may encourage UTI development. Wearing underwear that is somewhat adsorptive may help wick away urine drops that otherwise may be areas for pathogen growth.

What Are The Symptoms Of A Urinary Tract Infection

UTI l Urinary Tract Infection & Pyelonephritis Treatment for NCLEX RN & LPN

These are the most common symptoms of a UTI:

  • Frequent urination

If your healthcare professional prescribes you antibiotics:

  • Take antibiotics exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
  • Do not share your antibiotics with others.
  • Do not save antibiotics for later. Talk to your healthcare professional about safely discarding leftover antibiotics.

Drink plenty of water or other fluids. Your healthcare professional might also recommend medicine to help lessen the pain or discomfort. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your antibiotics.

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What Are The Types Of Utis

Common types of UTIs include:

  • cystitis: this bladder infection is the most common type of UTI. It happens when bacteria move up the urethra and into the bladder.
  • urethritis: when bacteria infect the urethra
  • pyelonephritis: a kidney infection caused by infected urine flowing backward from the bladder into the kidneys or an infection in the bloodstream reaching the kidneys

A Pharmacist Can Help With Utis

You can ask a pharmacist about treatments for a UTI.

A pharmacist can:

  • offer advice on things that can help you get better
  • suggest the best painkiller to take
  • tell you if you need to see a GP about your symptoms

Some pharmacies offer a UTI management service. They may be able to give antibiotics if they’re needed.

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Youre Using Certain Methods Of Birth Control

When it comes to UTI prevention, not all birth control methods are created equal. Luckily, only one method is associated with UTIs: a diaphragm.

Because of where the diaphragm sits, it puts pressure on the urethra, which might lead to an increased risk, says Minkin. The good news? There are plenty of other great birth control options.

Treatment From A Gp For Utis That Keep Coming Back

Solved 1. What is bacteriuria? When is it significant? 2.

If your UTI comes back after treatment, or you have 2 UTIs in 6 months, a GP may:

  • prescribe a different antibiotic or prescribe a low-dose antibiotic to take for up to 6 months
  • prescribe a vaginal cream containing oestrogen, if you have gone through the menopause
  • refer you to a specialist for further tests and treatments

In some people, antibiotics do not work or urine tests do not pick up an infection, even though you have UTI symptoms.

This may mean you have a long-term UTI that is not picked up by current urine tests. Ask the GP for a referral to a specialist for further tests and treatments.

Long-term UTIs are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer in people aged 60 and over.

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Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

UTIs are best managed in an interprofessional fashion, and besides physicians, most nurses will encounter a patient with a UTI. The key to preventing recurrences is patient education. Once a UTI has been diagnosed, the patient should be encouraged to drink more fluids. Sexually active women should try to void right after sexual intercourse as this can help flush the bacteria out of the bladder. Some women with recurrent UTIs may benefit from the prophylactic use of antibiotics. Several other non-medical remedies may help some women with UTIs. Anecdotal reports indicate that using cranberry juice and probiotics may help reduce the severity and frequency of UTIs in some women. Primary clinicians should refer patients with recurrent UTIs to the urologist to rule out reflux and anatomical defects.

Outcomes

The majority of women with a UTI have an excellent outcome. Following treatment with an antibiotic, the duration of symptoms is 2 to 4 days. Unfortunately, nearly 30% of women will have a recurrence of the infection. Morbidity is usually seen in older debilitated patients or those with renal calculi. Other factors linked to recurrence include the presence of diabetes, underlying malignancy, chemotherapy, and chronic catheterization of the bladder. The mortality after a UTI is close to zero.

Vaccines Targeting Bacterial Adhesion

As adherence has a key role at nearly every step of UTI pathogenesis, one attractive strategy for the development of antivirulence therapies, including vaccines, has been to target CUP pili. As a general rule, vaccination with whole pili has been ineffective at generating an antibody response that can protect against UTIs. However, adhesin-based vaccines have been shown to be effective at blocking hostpathogen interactions, thus preventing the establishment of disease108112. Experiments using mouse and cynomolgus monkey models of UTIs determined that immunization with PapDPapG or FimCFimH chaperoneadhesin complexes protected against UTIs108112. The effectiveness of the FimCFimH vaccine was shown to be due, in large part, to antibodies that block the function of FimH in bladder colonization110. Furthermore, the anti-FimH antibodies did not seem to alter the E. coli niche in the gut microbiota109. Modifications of this vaccine are currently under development, with the aim of inducing greater immune stimulation108,112. For example, one approach has been to fuse FimH to the flagellin FliC in order to induce a more substantial acute inflammatory response, which functions through TLR4 signalling via the MYD88 pathway112. A Phase I clinical trial began in January 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of a FimCFimH vaccine using a synthetic analogue of monophosphoryl lipid A as the adjuvant.

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What Are The Treatment Options For Uti

Urine alkalizer and antibiotics are the first choices for treating urinary tract infections .

The physician chooses antibiotics to treat your UTI based on:

  • Effectiveness of the antibiotic toward infecting bacteria.
  • The severity of the infection.
  • Your age group.

Some of the antibiotics used to treat UTIs include:

  • Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs
  • Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic many organisms may show resistance to this type of antibiotic
  • Fluoroquinolones avoid giving them to pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Tetracyclines are used for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections never use them to treat pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Aminoglycosides are usually used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe UTIs
  • Macrolides are used more often to treat some urinary problems caused by sexually transmitted diseases
  • Fosfomycin , a synthetic phosphonic acid derivative, is used for acute cystitis but not in complicated UTIs

Apart from antibiotics, cranberry juice is known to show improvement in UTIs however, monitor for the following signs if you are drinking cranberry juice to treat UTIs:

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Who Gets Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infection, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Anyone can. But they’re more likely when you:

  • Have had UTIs before
  • Have a condition that affects your bladder’s nerves
  • Have been through menopause
  • Have something that blocks the passage of urine, such as a tumor, kidney stone, or an enlarged prostate
  • Use a diaphragm or spermicide for birth control
  • Have a catheter, a tube placed into the bladder to drain urine from the bladder into a bag outside the body
  • Are a man who has sex with men, has HIV, or hasnât been circumcised

Most of these traits also raise the odds that a simple bladder infection may become a more serious kidney infection or turn into . For pregnant women, a kidney infection can lead to delivering a baby too early.

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Treatments For Specific Populations

Treating Pregnant Women

Pregnant women should be screened for UTIs, since they are at high risk for UTIs and their complications. Antibiotics used for treating pregnant women with UTIs include amoxicillin, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and cephalosporins . Fosfomycin is not as effective as other antibiotics but is sometimes prescribed for pregnant women. In general, there is no consensus on which antibiotic is best for pregnant women although some types of antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, should not be taken as they can cause harm to the fetus.

Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria have an increased risk for acute pyelonephritis in their second or third trimester. They need screening and treatment for this condition. In such cases, they should be treated with a short course of antibiotics . For an uncomplicated UTI, pregnant women may need longer-term antibiotics .

Treating Children with UTIs

Children with UTIs are generally treated with TMP-SMX, cephalexin and other cephalosporins, or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid . These drugs are usually taken by mouth in either liquid or pill form. Doctors sometimes give them as a shot or IV. Children usually respond to treatment within a few days. Prompt treatment with antibiotics may help prevent renal scarring.

Children with acute kidney infection are treated with various antibiotics including oral cefixime or a short course of an intravenous antibiotic . An oral antibiotic then follows the IV.

Treatment For Recurrent Infections

Women who have 2 or more symptomatic UTIs within a 6-month period, or 3 or more episodes over the course of a year, may need preventive antibiotics. All women should use lifestyle measures to prevent recurrences.

Intermittent Self Treatment

Many, if not most, women with recurrent UTIs can effectively self-treat recurrent UTIs without going to a doctor. In general, this requires the following steps:

  • As soon as the person develops symptoms, she takes the antibiotic. Infections that occur less than twice a year are usually treated as if they were an initial attack, with single-dose or 3-day antibiotic regimens.
  • In some cases, she also performs a clean-catch urine test before starting antibiotics and sends it to the doctor for culturing to confirm the infection.

A woman should consult a doctor under the following circumstances:

  • If symptoms have not gone away within 48 hours of starting the antibiotic treatment
  • If there is a change in symptoms
  • If the person suspects that she is pregnant
  • If the person has more than 4 infections a year

Women who are not good candidates for self-treatment are those with impaired immune systems, previous kidney infections, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, or a history of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Postcoital Antibiotics

Continuous Preventive Antibiotics

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Treatment For Urinary Tract Infections

Treatment may include:

  • Pyridium or Uristat and/or heating pad to relieve pain
  • Behavior modifications, including drinking plenty of water to help cleanse the urinary tract of bacteria

When antibiotics are used, the length of treatment can vary from 3 days to several weeks, depending on the severity of the infection, how frequently infections are developing, and whether the kidneys are involved in the infection. It is always important to take the antibiotics for as many days as your doctor prescribes them, in order to completely eradicate the bacteria.

Organs Of The Urinary Tract

Viral pathogens, Taxonomy of clinically relevant, By OpenStax (Page 2/3 ...

The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters , bladder, and urethra. These organs may be injured by blunt force or by penetrating force . Injuries may also occur unintentionally during surgery.

UTIs are usually classified as upper or lower according to where they occur along the urinary tract, although it is sometimes difficult or impossible for doctors to make such a determination:

Some doctors also consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower UTIs. In paired organs , infection can occur in one or both organs. UTIs can occur in children Urinary Tract Infection in Children A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder , the kidneys , or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger read more as well as in adults.

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Nonculture Methods For The Laboratory Diagnosis Of Uti

Detection of bacteriuria by urine microscopy. Bacteriuria can be detected microscopically using Gram staining of uncentrifuged urine specimens, Gram staining of centrifuged specimens, or direct observation of bacteria in urine specimens. Gram stain of uncentrifuged urine specimens is a simple method. A volume of urine is applied to a glass microscope slide, allowed to air dry, stained with Gram stain, and examined microscopically. The performance characteristics of the test are not well-defined, because different criteria have been used to define a positive test result. In one study, the test was found to be sensitive for the detection of 105 cfu/mL but insensitive for the detection of lower numbers of bacteria . Other investigators have found the test to be of low sensitivity for the detection of UTI .

Performance characteristics of Gram staining for detection of bacteriuria.

Performance characteristics of leukocyte esterase and nitrite tests, alone or in combination, for detection of bacteriuria and/or pyuria.

A number of drugs can change the color of urine abnormal urine color may affect urine tests that are based on the interpretation of color changes. In some cases, this can mask color changes, and in others, it may result in false-positive interpretations .

How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed

Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:

  • Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
  • Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.

If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:

  • Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
  • Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
  • CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.

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