How Common Are Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are very common, occurring in 1 out of 5 women sometime in their lifetime. Though UTIs are common in women, they can also happen to men, older adults and children. One to 2% of children develop urinary tract infections. Each year, 8 million to 10 million visits to doctors are for urinary tract infections.
What Happens If A Uti Goes Untreated For An Older Person
UTI infections that go untreated can spread from your bladder to your kidneys and beyond. Especially in older adults or anyone with a lowered immune system, treating an infection earlier can keep it from spreading and overwhelming your system.
An infection that goes untreated can lead to , a serious form of infection. Dr. Slopnick says fear of sepsis is what causes some people to worry about asymptomatic bacteriuria. If you have a UTI, youll almost certainly show symptoms long before the infection spreads or sepsis sets in.
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Do I Need To See A Doctor
Yes. Painful urination can be a symptom of a more serious problem. You should tell your doctor about your symptoms and how long youve had them. Tell your doctor about any medical conditions you have, such as diabetes mellitus or AIDS, because these could affect your bodys response to infection. Tell your doctor about any known abnormality in your urinary tract, and if you are or might be pregnant. Tell your doctor if youve had any procedures or surgeries on your urinary tract. He or she also need to know if you were recently hospitalized or stayed in a nursing home.
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Why Do Utis Come Back
The short answer: shrug. Recurrent UTIs arent due to poor hygiene or something else that women have brought on themselves. Some women are just prone to UTIs, says infectious diseases specialist Dr. Kalpana Gupta, a lecturer in medicine at Harvard Medical School, in the article published by Harvard Health Publishing.
What Are Other Possible Causes Of Painful Urination
A painful burning feeling when you urinate is often a sign of a urinary tract infection . However, painful urination can occur even if you dont have an infection. Certain drugs, like some used in cancer chemotherapy, may inflame the bladder. Something pressing against the bladder or a kidney stone stuck near the entrance to the bladder can also cause painful urination.
Painful urination can also be caused by vaginal infection or irritation. You might be sensitive to chemicals in products such as douches, vaginal lubricants, soaps, scented toilet paper, or contraceptive foams or sponges. If it hurts to urinate after youve used these products, youre probably sensitive to them.
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Bacteria Identification Key To Therapy Selection
Studies analysing the typology of pathogens cau-sing urinary tract infections in non-diabetic patients quote Escherichia coli , Enterococcus sp. , Klebsiella sp. , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus sp. , and Staphylococcus sp. as the most prevalent bacteria . For diabetic patients, the most typical pathogens observed were Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp , Staphylococcus spp , and Enterococcus spp . In pregnant women, urinary tract infections are usually caused by Escherichia coli , bacteria from the Staphylococcus genus , Proteus mirabilis , Enterococcus faecalis , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . In infants, the most common pathogens included Escherichia coli , Klebsiella , and Staphylococci .
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Are Utis Caused By Bacteria Or Viruses
Most UTIs are caused by bacteria, and E. coli is the most common culprit. Some UTIs are fungal, in which case theyre usually caused by the Candida fungus. UTIs can also be viral, but viral UTIs are rare.
Since the urethra is open to the outside of your body, bacteria or other germs can enter your urethra and travel up the urinary tract to your bladder.
Symptoms of a bladder infection can include:
A constant urge to pee
A painful, burning sensation when urinating
Peeing only small amounts of urine at a time
Bloody or cloudy urine
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Can I Prevent Recurrent Utis
There are steps you can take to help reduce UTIs. The most basic is to drink plenty of fluids. This encourages frequent urination and helps flush out bacteria.
For women, following good hygiene practices is especially important:
- After a bowel movement, wipe from front to back to reduce the chance of moving E. coli bacteria from the rectal area to the urethra.
- Pee immediately before and after sex.
- Wear cotton underwear.
For older adults, take care to deal with retention problems, which are especially an issue as you age.
I tell them to double-void urinate and then go back and urinate again, Dr. Vasavada says.
What about drinking cranberry juice to fight UTIs?
Thats one of the most commonly asked questions, Dr. Vasavada says. Theres conflicting data. Its not going to cure an infection, but it could help prevent one, so we dont discourage it.
What If The Infection Does Not Clear Up With Treatment
Most infections clear up with treatment. However, if an infection does not clear up, or if you have repeated infections, you may be given some special tests such as:
a type of x-ray called an intravenous pyleogram , which involves injecting a dye into a vein and taking pictures of your kidney and bladder
an ultrasound exam, which gives a picture of your kidneys and bladder using sound waves
a cytoscopic exam, which uses a hollow tube with special lenses to look inside the bladder.
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Why Do Women Get Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary Tract Infections account for roughly 8.1 million annual doctor visits, and about 60 percent of women will experience a UTI in their lifetime. To understand why UTIs occur, it is helpful to understand the urinary tract, which makes and stores urine in the kidneys, and travels down the ureters to the bladder where it is stored until emptied. Urine is emptied through the urethra, a tube that connects the bladder to the skin. The opening of the urethra is at the end of the vaginal opening in females. Normal urine doesnt have bacteria in it, but bacteria can get into urine through the urethra.
UTI symptoms include a need to urinate more often, and burning or pain when urinating. It can also cause a strong urge to urinate even when you don’t have much urine in your bladder. The urine may also smell bad and appear cloudy or even bloody. It is important to call your health provider if you experience any of these symptoms. Noticing any blood in the urine may indicate a sign of something more serious, making the need to call your health provider more urgent.
Sometimes the cause of UTIs is an abnormality in the urinary tract. Such abnormalities include diverticula that harbor bacteria in the bladder or urethra or blockages, such as an enlarged bladder, that prevents the body from completely draining urine from the bladder. Individuals with diabetes are also at a higher risk, as their bodies dont fight germs off as well.
Urinary Tract Infection Signs
Nothing can guarantee you wont get a bladder infection after sex, but the above along with staying hydrated all the time can help. If you suspect you have a UTI, get medical help right away. This prevents the UTI from getting too severe and making its way up to your kidneys. Signs of a UTI include
- Burning urination
A general feeling of illness can also accompany a UTI, especially if you have a severe bladder infection. In severe cases and as we said above, the infection can travel up the urethra into the bladder and then up into your kidneys. In this case, you may also experience back pain and disorientation or confusion.
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Reasons Why You Might Get Recurring Utis
Many women who get a urinary tract infection may get one again at some point in their lives. In fact, one in five women experience recurrent UTIsan infection that occurs two times or more within six months or at least three times in a year. Men can get recurrent UTIs too, but it is not as common and is often due to some type of urinary tract blockage.
Why Am I Getting Urinary Tract Infections
Ever since I started having sex I get urinary tract infections a lot. Does that mean there could be something else wrong? Mandy*
If you have burning or pain when you pee, it could be a number of things. One possibility is a urinary tract infection , but others include a sexually transmitted disease , such as chlamydia, or chemical irritation from a spermicide . Its hard to tell the difference without seeing a doctor or .
Urinary tract infections tend to be more common in girls who have sex. Often, they happen because bacteria entered the urethra .
Follow these steps to help decrease your chances of getting UTIs:
- Wipe front to back after going to the bathroom.
- Pee right before and after sex.
- Drink plenty of liquids, especially water.
STDs can cause symptoms similar to those of a UTI, such as burning, vaginal discharge, belly pain, and irregular bleeding.
Many times, though, STDs have few symptoms, which is why it is important for anyone who has had sex to be tested at least once a year. And always use condoms with any type of sex to help prevent STDs.
In any case, the best thing to do is get checked out ASAP by a health care provider who can look for the reason you’re having symptoms. It’s really important to get the right diagnosis and treatment!
*Names have been changed to protect user privacy.
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Should My Partner Be Tested For Uti
Ive since learned that it is indeed possible for bacteria to be passed back and forth between partners during sex. If you think about it, that makes perfect sense this is exactly how STIs occur, so why not other organisms?
Its entirely possible for males to carry bacteria without experiencing symptoms, so they wouldnt necessarily know they were contributing to your own symptoms. Same sex partners can of course pass organisms back and forth too thats one area that is truly equal.
UTIs after sex prevention tip 2: Consider whether your partner should also be tested.
Strangely, my boyfriends housemate also began to experience recurrent UTIs. That got me thinking about the environment in their share house, or their drinking water or possibly my boyfriends fidelity! It seemed like way too much of a coincidence for this to be happening to both of us at the same time.
Learn more about UTI and sex and getting your partner tested in our expert video series.
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Clinical Presentation And Diagnosis
Common symptoms of a UTI are dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain and possible haematuria. Systemic symptoms are usually slight or absent. The urine may have an unpleasant odour and appear cloudy.23 Diagnosis of RUTI depends on the characteristic of clinical features, past history, three positive urinary cultures within the previous 12-month period in symptomatic patients and the presence of neutrophils in the urine .7,8,21 Irritative voiding symptoms are present in 2530 % of women with RUTIs.25 The probability of finding a positive culture in the presence of the above symptoms and the absence of vaginal discharge is around 81%.26 In a complicated UTI, such as pyelonephritis, the symptoms of a lower UTI will persist for more than a week with systemic symptoms of persistent fever, chills, nausea and vomiting.25
Women with RUTIs should have an initial evaluation including a history-taking and a physical and pelvic examination the latter is important to detect pelvic organ prolapse and to assess the status of the vaginal epithelium.28 Urinalysis and urine culture with sensitivity are also valuable investigations. Women with a positive family history of DM, obesity or RUTI must be screened for DM.28,29 Women with suspected urine retention need to be evaluated for high post-void residual urine volume.
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Cranberry Juice And Tablets
Cranberry juice and tablets have been shown to reduce RUTIs as they contain a compound called tannin, or proanthocyanidin, which reduces E. coli vaginal colonisation.65,66 Although earlier, smaller studies have shown that consuming cranberry juice or tablets can prevent RUTIs, an updated Cochrane review showed that evidence for its benefit in preventing UTIs is small therefore, cranberry juice cannot be recommended any longer for UTI prevention.21,6769
What Are The Symptoms Of Uti In Males
Doctors classify UTIs into two types depending on the location:
- Upper UTI: Infection of the urethra, bladder, or ureter
- Lower UTI: infection of the kidney
Upper UTI symptoms may include:
- Pain in the loins
Lower UTI symptoms may include:
- Pain and burning when passing urine
- Increased frequency of passing urine
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Cloudy, bloody or smelly urine
Some men may not have any symptoms at all. Older men may develop confusion or a general feeling of being unwell.
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Diaphragms And Other Barrier Methods Are Hormone
These are barrier methods of birth control. The diaphragm is a flexible cup that you place in your to block sperm from entering your uterus. Its most effective when used with spermicide.
You will have to be fitted for a diaphragm by your doctor, and its a good idea to replace it after a year. Youll have to examine it occasionally, as well, to make sure there are no holes, tears, or thinning of the latex. If youve recently gained or lost weight, youll also want to have it checked for fit.
Pros: All of these items are hormone-free. You can insert your diaphragm or cervical cap anywhere from just before sex up to six hours before intercourse. Theyre both great options if you have medical conditions, such as breast cancer, that make it unsafe to use hormones for birth control. Unlike those methods, the sponge is an over-the-counter item.
While it is extremely rare, all three methods may cause toxic shock syndrome. So dont leave a diaphragm in for more than 24 hours, and dont leave a cervical cap in for more than 48 hours.
The Link Between Utis And Sex: Causes And How To Prevent Them
One common way women get urinary tract infections is by having sex. But that doesn’t mean you have to banish sex from your life to prevent painful infections.
Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections arent the only consequences of having sex. For some women, a urinary tract infection can also be a result.
Blame it on anatomy, which makes a UTI more likely for women than for men, says Sujata Yavagal, MD, a urogynecologist at Baptist Health South Florida in Miami.
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Does Cranberry Juice Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection
Many people say that cranberry juice can help treat, or even prevent, a UTI. Researchers are currently looking into the topic, but havent found a definitive answer yet. Healthcare providers recommend drinking lots of fluids if you have, or have a history of getting, a UTI. Adding a glass of unsweetened cranberry juice to your diet isnt a proven way to prevent a UTI, but it typically wont hurt you either.
When To Get Medical Advice
It’s a good idea to see your GP if you think you might have a UTI, particularly if:
- you have symptoms of an upper UTI
- the symptoms are severe or getting worse
- the symptoms haven’t started to improve after a few days
- you get UTIs frequently
Your GP can rule out other possible causes of your symptoms by testing a sample of your urine and can prescribe antibiotics if you do have an infection.
Antibiotics are usually recommended because untreated UTIs can potentially cause serious problems if they’re allowed to spread.
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Recognizing Uti Symptoms In Men
Can males get UTI from females? No, men usually get UTIs from other factors. And when you have a urinary tract infection,you do not always notice symptoms. However, whenever there are symptoms, they are usually the same in both men and women. Some of the most common symptoms include the following:
- You may pass cloudy, bloody, or bad-smelling urine.
- You may pass a small amount of urine at a time.
- You have abdominal pain.
- You may experience pain in your lower back.
- You may experience a burning sensation when passing urine.
- You may have a strong urge to urinate.
- You may have a low-grade fever.
Imaging Evaluation Following A Uti
An algorithm for the management of children with the presumptive diagnosis of a UTI is presented in Figure 1. The literature describing various protocols for the imaging evaluation of the urinary tract following a UTI is extensive. Unfortunately, no prospective studies with long-term outcome data are available.21 Some experts recommend that all children with a UTI be investigated with urinary tract ultrasonography. With regard to children younger than one year, two years or five years, some experts recommend urinary tract ultrasonography and cystography.2226 Some would obtain only cortical imaging or cystography if these studies are normal. In addition, there are those who suggest that no imaging is needed in the child with cystitis who responds promptly to treatment.2729
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