Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of E Coli In Community
There are limited oral options for the treatment of ESBL-producing bacteria associated with lower urinary tract infections . Cotrimoxazole was a typical antibiotic used to treat UTIs, but the resistance of E. coli to this drug has markedly increased. According to the literature published in the past decade, in Asia, a 10~15% resistance rate to this drug was reported in Japan , with approximately 30% resistance rates observed in China and south Korea . In Europe and the Mediterranean region, the resistance rates of E. coli to cotrimoxazole varied but were usually over 15% . However, there was an interesting report wherein the authors emphasized the role of cotrimoxazole in empirical antibiotics because of the recent decrease in the resistance rate to cotrimoxazole in several European countries due to its low prescription rate . However, it may be not possible to reuse the drug worldwide within the next several years, and close observation of surveillance data will be required.
Usually A Man With Uti Faces The Following Common Symptoms:
- Pain and burning sensation while passing urine
- Sudden and frequent urges to pass the urine
- Dark brown urine due to the presence of blood
If the urinary infection becomes severe and reaches the kidneys or to the prostate gland, the person can face the below-mentioned symptoms as well.
- Constant fatigue
These are the severe symptoms of urinary tract infections.
Genomic Survey Of E Coli From The Bladders Of Women With And Without Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
- 1Bioinformatics Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 2Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 3Neuroscience Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 4Niehoff School of Nursing, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States
- 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States
- 6Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 7Department of Computer Science, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
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Key Points About Urinary Tract Infections
- Urinary tract infections are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. These infections can affect any part of the urinary tract.
- Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
- The most common symptoms of UTIs include changes in urination such as frequency, pain, or burning urine looks dark, cloudy, or red and smells bad back or side pain nausea/vomiting and fever.
- Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. Other treatments may include pain relievers, and drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract.
- Other things that can be done may help reduce the likelihood of developing UTIs.
Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented
These steps may help reduce the chance of getting UTIs:
- Drink plenty of water every day.
- Drink cranberry juice. Large amounts of vitamin C limit the growth of some bacteria by acidifying the urine. Vitamin C supplements have the same effect.
- Urinate when you feel the need. Do not wait.
- Females, wipe from front to back to keep bacteria around the anus from going in the vagina or urethra.
- Take showers instead of tub baths.
- Clean the genital area before and after sex, and urinate shortly after sex.
- Women should not use feminine hygiene sprays or scented douches.
- Cotton underwear and loose fitting clothes help keep the area around the urethra dry. Tight clothes and nylon underwear trap moisture. This can help bacteria grow.
- Repeated bouts of urinary tract infections can be treated with small doses of regular antibiotics.
Please consult your health care provider with any questions or concerns you may have about UTIs.
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Risk Factors For Acquisition Of Antimicrobial Resistance In E Coli
Colonization has also been suggested to be risk factor for the selection of antimicrobial resistance. Most clinical factors associated with colonization and infection by ESBL-producing organisms involve healthcare exposure, such as hospitalization, residence in a long-term care facility, hemodialysis use, and the presence of an intravascular catheter . In a study of Dutch individuals who had no ESBL colonization prior to international travel, 34 percent overall and 75 percent of individuals who travelled to southern Asia became colonized by ESBL-producing strains following their travels . Another report showed an ESBL prevalence of 49.0-64.0% for residents and 5.2-14.5% for staff . Thus, travelers to endemic areas, hospitalized patients, care-givers in health care unit, guardians of in-patients, and hospital workers, including residents, are at an increased risk of colonization by antimicrobial resistant bacteria, showing the importance of environmental hygiene and taking precautions against contact with MDR bacteria. Once a cluster of resistant bacteria colonizes any part of the human body, it is possible that the bacteria will grow and horizontally transfer plasmid-encoded resistance genes to other susceptible bacteria or to different species .
Finally, indwelling catheters, which lead to complicated UTIs, are a known a risk factor for the acquisition of MDR bacteria .
Can You Get A Uti From Having Sex
Sexual intercourse is a prime scenario for bacteria to enter the urethra, especially for women, who tend to experience more UTIs than men do. The physical activity involved in sex can send bacteria into the urethra. In fact, studies show that increasing the frequency of sex increases the likelihood of UTIs. Remember that the urethra connects directly to the bladder, so if the germs continue to travel up the urinary tract, they will reach the bladder first.
Sex is a common way for germs like bacteria to enter the urinary tract, but its not the only way. Lets discuss some other potential UTI causes.
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Kidney Infection Caused By E Coli
The kidneys are key organs that filter the blood and eliminate waste products, while keeping essential minerals and substances to distribute to the rest of the body. All the waste from the blood leaves the body via urine. Both kidneys or one kidney may get infected with a variety of harmful bacteria, causing pyelonephritis the medical name for a bacterial kidney infection). Very often, E. coli is responsible.
Summary Of Currently Studied Upec Virulence Genes
presents a set of E. coli genes that have been potentially implicated as important in allowing some UPEC isolates to establish urinary tract infections. The first one we will discuss is the fim gene cluster that encodes the proteins responsible for type 1 pilus production. Unlike the other genes in , the fim genes are not present in a statistically significantly higher set of UPEC vs. rectal isolates as almost all E. coli have the fim genes. However, as is true with many of the pilus gene clusters in E. coli, type 1 pilus expression is regulated in part by a phase-variation system. Gunther IV et al. compared the fate of mutants phase-locked in either the on or off configuration in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection and found that the locked-off mutants were recovered from the urine, bladder and kidneys 24 h post-inoculation in significantly lower numbers than the wild type, while the locked-on mutants were recovered at higher numbers than the wild type, implying an important role for type 1 pili in initial colonization of the bladder. In addition to mediating adherence to bladder epithelium, the FimH adhesin at the tip of type 1 pili mediate invasion of bladder epithelial and mast cells into caveolae , which has been proposed to protect the bacteria from host defenses and antibiotics. This may explain the observation that roughly one half of all second UTIs are caused by the same E. coli strain that caused the initial UTI .
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What Can I Expect If I Have An E Coli Infection
Its important to keep in mind that most strains of E. coli are harmless. They live naturally in your intestinal tract and help digest your food. Sometimes, however, you may eat food or drink water that is contaminated with illness-causing E. coli. Sometimes a mild E. coli infection will cause a brief bout of diarrhea. Other strains of E. coli, the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli , cause bloody diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain and cramps. If you are otherwise healthy, you should recover from an E. coli infection within about a week without any treatment.
Although hemolytic uremic syndrome is a serious complication, it is rare and occurs in about 5% to 10% of people. With early treatment and proper care, people can recover from HUS.
Escherichia Coli And Kidney Infection
The common harmful bacteria Escherichia coli are very frequently found to be the cause of pyelonephritis. These bacteria live in the bowels of healthy people, and through the urethra they could travel into the bladder and the ureters , causing infections of the lower urinary tract , such as cystitis or kidney infections.
Women are more vulnerable to developing a UTI, because of their anatomy which makes the urethra nearer to the anus and also shorter than in men.
Kidney infections may develop in patients without a prior bladder problem, especially due to the blockage of the kidneys and conditions such as enlarged prostate or kidney stones. Additionally, the infection may also come to your kidneys from some other part of the body.
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What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.
More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.
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Study Design Sampling And Bacterial Isolates
A total of 2618 urine samples of early morning mid-stream were collected in sterile, wide mouthed bottles from patients between March and July of 2015. Samples were analyzed within one hour after collection. Samples were inoculated using an inoculating loop with a 10 l volume calibration on nutrient, blood, and Mac Conkey agar plates and incubated in aerobic condition at 37 °C for 24 hours. Colony counts equal or more than 105 per ml were considered as positive UTIs and at less than 105 per ml was considered a suspected UTI and the assay repeated. Identification was done based on routine standard biochemical tests, including oxidase, catalase, motility and gas production, reduction of nitrates, Indol, methyl red, voges-proskauer, citrate, lactose fermenter, and lysine dexarboxylatate tests. Samples that were confirmed as E. coli were stored in BHI Broth containing 15% glycerol at 70 °C and were subjected to further molecular tests.
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Assessment Of Disease Status
We followed the TCVS participants from 2005 to 2014 by linking the baseline data to the National Health Insurance Research Database and the death records at the National Health and Welfare Data Science Center , Ministry of Health and Welfare.
In Taiwan, the National Health Insurance Program is a governmental universal health insurance program covering nearly 100% of the population. Individuals medical claim data including diagnosis from both inpatient and outpatient are available. In order to protect the privacy of individuals as required by local law, personal identification number is masked and all analyses must be performed within the HWDC. Only summarized research results , could be released.
E Coli Sequence Type 131
Determining the clonal types of UPEC is crucial for understanding the role of clonal spread to emerging antimicrobial resistance, which is important for defining and interrupting transmission pathways. Multidrug-resistant E. coli sequence type 131 has emerged over the past decade as a globally disseminated cause of extraintestinal infections in humans and animals . The recent emergence of this clone has coincided with an increase in antibiotic resistance among E. coli generally, suggesting a contributing role for ST131 in resistance.
In contrast to traditional antimicrobial resistant E. coli , which mostly derive from low virulence phylogenetic groups A and B1, ST131 derives exclusively from phylogenetic group B2, which is traditionally known to be enriched for VF genes. This, plus limited experimental evidence of virulence and several case reports of unusually severe or fatal extraintestinal infections due to ST131, suggests that the emergence of ST131 may be due to a high virulence potential compared with other E. coli types. However, despite this, some studies have reported absence of traits commonly associated with B2 phylogeny, particularly adhesins and toxins .
Four VF genes are associated with ST131 isolates, and so could represent potential targets for vaccines or other interventions, particularly if a functional role in virulence or dissemination can be demonstrated for them. Most of the ST131 isolates are of the O25b variant, and the remainder are type O16 .
Can I Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection
You can usually prevent a urinary tract infection with lifestyle changes. These tips can include:
In some post-menopausal women, a healthcare provider may suggest an estrogen-containing vaginal cream. This may reduce the risk of developing a UTI by changing the pH of the vagina. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have recurrent UTIs and have already gone through menopause.
Over-the-counter supplements are also available for UTIs. These are sometimes recommended for people who have frequent UTIs as another way to prevent them. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting any supplements and ask if these could be a good choice for you.
Upec Antibiotic Susceptibility And Resistance
The efficacy of antibiotic treatment depends on the identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of uropathogens responsible for UTI . The practice of prescribing antibiotics to treat UTI without bacterial characterization led to increased resistance among uropathogens and to decreased effectiveness of oral therapies. Despite clinical symptoms of UTIs have been ameliorated by numerous antibiotics, UPEC persistence and resistance to antibiotics represent a serious problem . According to the 2015 guidelines of the European Association of Urology, the recommendations for the prevention of recurrent UTI are first aimed at behavioral changes and immediately after toward non-antibiotic measures. If these two recommendations are not sufficiently effective then the antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, in order to prevent the adverse events and collateral damages that the long-term and not necessary use of antibiotics may cause . In Europe, resistance to UPEC isolates shows average values of 11.8% for third-generation cephalosporins and 22.3% for fluoroquinolones. In the U.S., fluoroquinolone-resistant UPEC represented the 31.3% of isolates among hospitalized patients between the years 2007 and 2010 . These data confirm the general consideration that number of effective antibiotic compounds availability and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance are worsening, as demonstrated by an increased number of clinical studies .
What Causes Urinary Tract Infections
Normal urine is sterile and contains fluids, salts, and waste products. It does not contain bacteria, viruses, or fungi. A UTI occurs when germs, most often bacteria from the digestive tract, get into the opening of the urethra and start to multiply.
Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
What Is Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Some people, especially children age five and under, who become infected with a STEC infection develop a condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome . In this condition, toxins in your intestines from STEC cause diarrhea, travel into your bloodstream, destroy red blood cells and damage your kidneys. This potentially life-threatening illness develops in about 5% to 10% of people who are infected with STEC.
Early symptoms of HUS include:
- Diarrhea .
- Sleepiness, confusion, seizures.
- Kidney failure.
If you develop severe diarrhea or if you have bloody diarrhea, go to the hospital for emergency care. HUS, if it develops, occurs an average of 7 days after your first symptoms occur. It is treated with IV fluids, blood transfusions and dialysis .
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What Is The Prognosis For A Urinary Tract Infection
A good prognosis is usual for spontaneously resolved and quickly treated UTIs. Even patients that have rapidly developing symptoms and early pyelonephritis can have a good prognosis if quickly and adequately treated. The prognosis begins to decline if the UTI is not quickly recognized or treated. Elderly and immunosuppressed patients may not have the UTI recognized early their prognosis may range from fair to poor, depending on how much damage is done to the urinary tract or if complications like sepsis occur. Like adults, most adequately treated children will have a good prognosis. Children and adults with recurrent UTIs may develop complications and a worse prognosis recurrent UTIs may be a symptom of an underlying problem with the urinary tract structure. These patients should be referred to a specialist for further evaluation.
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Possible Symptoms And Complications Of A Kidney Infection
A kidney infection can be acute or chronic, depending on the duration of the problem. An acute kidney infection is commonly seen to develop in just a few hours or maximally 24 hours. Patients usually have very high body temperature , experience some shivering, feel sick, vomit and suffer from pain in the lower back. Some people suffering from pyelonephritis may also experience different problems with urination: stinging, burning and the urge to urinate frequently and urgently. There might also be some blood in the urine or a change of color and smell .
Pregnant women, diabetes patients and elderly people, as well as people with a weakened immune system, urinary catheter or persistent kidney infection are considered to be high risk groups for the development of complications after kidney infections caused by E.coli. These patients may suffer from swelling of the kidneys, kidney abscesses or even sepsis .
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