Neuraminidase Treatment Of Mouse Urinary Bladder Epithelium
Confluent monolayers were washed three times then treated with 10 mU ml1 of neuraminidase in 50 mM Na-acetate buffer containing 5 mM CaCl2. Cells were incubated for 4 h at 37°C, washed three times with PBS, and used in the adherence assay as described above.
These experiments were repeated twice and assayed in triplicate for each group.
Key Points About Urinary Tract Infections
- Urinary tract infections are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. These infections can affect any part of the urinary tract.
- Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
- The most common symptoms of UTIs include changes in urination such as frequency, pain, or burning urine looks dark, cloudy, or red and smells bad back or side pain nausea/vomiting and fever.
- Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. Other treatments may include pain relievers, and drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract.
- Other things that can be done may help reduce the likelihood of developing UTIs.
Prevention Of Infectious Disease Is The Best Option For Antibiotic Resistance Control Especially In Recurrent Uti
Recurrent UTI is defined as recurrence of uncomplicated and/or complicated UTIs, with a frequency of at least three UTIs/year or two UTIs in the last six months. Generally, UTIs differ from other infectious diseases in which pathognomonic sources are transmitted from the outside, such as sexually transmitted infections or respiratory tract infections. The bacteria that cause UTIs have characteristics that are typically symbiotic with the human body, and when an imbalance arises for some reason, it can result in infections of the urinary tract . Even individuals who do not have a urinary system abnormality are at risk to become infected, and some individuals suffer from repeated UTIs without apparent cause. Moreover, a person with a structural or functional abnormality of the urinary tract is at a higher risk for urinary tract infections. For this reason, efforts to manage the exposure of humans to infectious agents can reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections, and these efforts may help to slow the development of antibiotic resistance .
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Who Is Prone To Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections may affect anybody, although they are more frequent in women. UTIs are the most common bacterial infection encountered in the outpatient setting: by the age of 24, one in every three women will have a UTI that requires antibiotic therapy, and half of all women will have at least one UTI in their lifetime.
E Coli Sequence Type 131
Determining the clonal types of UPEC is crucial for understanding the role of clonal spread to emerging antimicrobial resistance, which is important for defining and interrupting transmission pathways. Multidrug-resistant E. coli sequence type 131 has emerged over the past decade as a globally disseminated cause of extraintestinal infections in humans and animals . The recent emergence of this clone has coincided with an increase in antibiotic resistance among E. coli generally, suggesting a contributing role for ST131 in resistance.
In contrast to traditional antimicrobial resistant E. coli , which mostly derive from low virulence phylogenetic groups A and B1, ST131 derives exclusively from phylogenetic group B2, which is traditionally known to be enriched for VF genes. This, plus limited experimental evidence of virulence and several case reports of unusually severe or fatal extraintestinal infections due to ST131, suggests that the emergence of ST131 may be due to a high virulence potential compared with other E. coli types. However, despite this, some studies have reported absence of traits commonly associated with B2 phylogeny, particularly adhesins and toxins .
Four VF genes are associated with ST131 isolates, and so could represent potential targets for vaccines or other interventions, particularly if a functional role in virulence or dissemination can be demonstrated for them. Most of the ST131 isolates are of the O25b variant, and the remainder are type O16 .
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What Are The Symptoms Of A Urinary Tract Infection
These are the most common symptoms of a UTI:
- Frequent urination
- Pain or burning when passing urine
- Urine looks dark, cloudy, or reddish in color
- Urine smells bad
- Feeling pain even when not urinating
- Pain in the back or side, below the ribs
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Despite an strong urge to urinate, only a small amount of urine is passed
- Women may feel an uncomfortable pressure above the pubic bone
The symptoms of UTI may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see a health care provider for a diagnosis.
Genomic Survey Of E Coli From The Bladders Of Women With And Without Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
- 1Bioinformatics Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 2Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 3Neuroscience Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 4Niehoff School of Nursing, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States
- 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States
- 6Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
- 7Department of Computer Science, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
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How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed
Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:
- Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
- Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.
If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:
- Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
- Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
- CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.
Treating Urinary Tract Infections
Some strains of E. coli are a normal part of microbial communities in the gut, but can cause a urinary tract infection if they make their way into the urinary system.
Doctors typically treat UTIs with a wide range of antibiotics. Which specific antibiotic is prescribed depends on the type of bacteria detected in the urine. Some antibiotics used to treat E. coliassociated UTIs include:
For most people, a three- or five-day course of antibiotics can successfully treat most UTIs, with pain and the persistent urge to urinate subsiding after a few doses.
Some strains of E. coli, called extended-spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli, are resistant to many antibiotic treatments. Individuals who are most at risk include those with urinary catheters, a history of recurrent UTIs, or recent antibiotic use. For these people, the following is often recommended:
- Carbapenems This classification of antibiotics includes imipenem , meropenem , doripenem , and ertapenem .
- Other Antibiotics Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and cefepime are sometimes a viable treatment option.
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How Can I Prevent Or Avoid An E Coli Infection
The most important thing you can do to protect against E. coli infection is to wash your hands frequently. Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after cooking and after handling raw meat or poultry.
Wash your hands after using the restroom, changing diapers or after contact with animals.
If youve been infected with E. coli, scrub your hands vigorously with soap and clean under your fingernails where bacteria can get caught. Dry your hands with paper towels instead of cloth towels to avoid transferring bacteria.
You can also reduce your risk of an E. coli infection by following these food preparation and cooking tips.
When thawing meats:
- Dont defrost frozen meat unwrapped on the counter.
- Keep frozen meat in a separate plastic bag when thawing.
When prepping foods:
- Dont rinse meat before cooking. Its not necessary. Washing the meat could spread bacterial to nearby surfaces, utensils and other food.
- Use a plastic or ceramic cutting board to cut raw meat. These materials can be cleaned more easily and thoroughly than wooden cutting boards.
- Dont cross-contaminate a prepping surface. If you had raw meat or chicken on a prepping surface, such as a cutting board, wash it thoroughly with soap and hot water before putting another type of food on it. Better yet, use different cutting boards for the foods you are preparing.
- Rinse all raw fruits and vegetables under cold running water before eating them. Its ok to scrub firm produce but dont use detergent or soap.
Urine Collection And Equc Bacterial Culturing
Pure cultures were obtained by isolating each morphologically distinct colony type on a different plate of the same medium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry with the MALDI Biotyper 3.0 software program was used to identify the bacterial strains . For some of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to verify MALDI-TOF classifications. Previous work by our group showed a concordance between MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing classification of urinary isolates . Strains identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF were grown from single colonies in lysogeny broth . Stocks of each strain were made using 900 L 50% glycerol mixed with 90 L E. coli cells, and stored at80°C.
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Core Genome And Phylogenomic Analysis
Amino acid sequences for each genomes RefSeq annotation derived by PGAP were concatenated into a single FASTA format file, sorted by length, and clustered using usearch via the cluster_fast method . Sequence identity thresholds of 70, 80, and 90% were tested the clusters generated for 80% were selected for further analysis. After manual inspection to confirm homologs were properly identified, the average sequence identity was confirmed to be > 90%. The final set of clusters were next parsed using Python to generate a gene presence/absence matrix for the genomes. Using this matrix, hierarchical clustering was performed with SciPy3 and the Ward variance minimization algorithm. The resulting tree was converted to Newick format and visualized using iTOL . This matrix also was used to identify genes belonging to the core and accessory genomes for the 66 E. coli. For each gene within the core genome set, the sequences were aligned using MAFFT and alignments were manually inspected . A consensus tree was derived by first concatenating the alignments followed by derivation using FastTree . The resulting tree was visualized using iTOL .
What Causes An E Coli Intestinal Infection
You get an E. coli infection by coming into contact with the feces, or stool, of humans or animals. This can happen when you drink water or eat food that has been contaminated by feces.
E. coli in food
E. coli can get into meat during processing. If the infected meat is not cooked to 71Â°C , the bacteria can survive and infect you when you eat the meat. This is the most common way people in Canada become infected with E. coli. Any food that has been in contact with raw meat can also become infected.
Other foods that can be infected with E. coli include:
- Raw milk or dairy products. Bacteria can spread from a cowâs udders to its milk. Check the labels on dairy products to make sure they contain the word âpasteurized.â This means the food has been heated to destroy bacteria.
- Raw fruits and vegetables, such as lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, or unpasteurized apple cider or other unpasteurized juices that have come in contact with infected animal feces.
E. coli in water
Human or animal feces infected with E. coli sometimes get into lakes, pools, and water supplies. People can become infected when a contaminated city or town water supply has not been properly treated with chlorine or when people accidentally swallow contaminated water while swimming in a lake, pool, or irrigation canal.
E. coli from person-to-person contact
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Treating An Uncomplicated Uti Caused By E Coli
Treatment options vary widely for UTIs, however the conventional treatment is antibiotics, in particular fluoroquinolone. Antibiotic resistance is an issue, with multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae, mostly E. coli, being a matter of concern.
E. coli strains are resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Non-antibiotic treatments that can be applied at home include herbal medicines, reflexology, and others, but ongoing or severe infection, especially involving the kidneys, requires prompt medical attention.
How Is An E Coli Infection Treated
Fortunately, most E. coli infections go away on their own. You can help yourself manage E. coli infection by drinking plenty of fluids to replace what youve lost through diarrhea and/or vomiting. Also, get as much rest as possible.
Antibiotics are usually not given for STEC O157 infection because they can make your illness worse and put you at risk for hemolytic uremic syndrome . Also, dont take any medicines to stop diarrhea , because it could keep the E. coli bacteria in your body and increase your chance of HUS.
You should start to feel better about five to seven days from the time you first developed symptoms.
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Effect Of Neuraminidase On E Coli Adherence To Mouse Urinary Bladder Cells
To determine whether removal of sialic acid from urinary bladder cells influences bacterial attachment, mouse urinary bladder cells were treated with C. perfringens neuraminidase. Following the treatment, in the untreated E. coli group adherence was decreased by 16% but this decrease did not attain statistical significance . However, adherence of sialic acid treated E. coli to neuraminidase treated bladder epithelial cells was decreased by 53% .
Sialic acid treated E. coli adherence to neuraminidase treated urinary bladder epithelium. Closed bar represents mean bacterial adherence of sialic acid treated E. coli to neuraminidase treated urinary bladder epithelium. *P< 0.05, significantly decreased compared to the untreated E. coli and urinary bladder epithelium adherence .
Summary Of Currently Studied Upec Virulence Genes
presents a set of E. coli genes that have been potentially implicated as important in allowing some UPEC isolates to establish urinary tract infections. The first one we will discuss is the fim gene cluster that encodes the proteins responsible for type 1 pilus production. Unlike the other genes in , the fim genes are not present in a statistically significantly higher set of UPEC vs. rectal isolates as almost all E. coli have the fim genes. However, as is true with many of the pilus gene clusters in E. coli, type 1 pilus expression is regulated in part by a phase-variation system. Gunther IV et al. compared the fate of mutants phase-locked in either the on or off configuration in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection and found that the locked-off mutants were recovered from the urine, bladder and kidneys 24 h post-inoculation in significantly lower numbers than the wild type, while the locked-on mutants were recovered at higher numbers than the wild type, implying an important role for type 1 pili in initial colonization of the bladder. In addition to mediating adherence to bladder epithelium, the FimH adhesin at the tip of type 1 pili mediate invasion of bladder epithelial and mast cells into caveolae , which has been proposed to protect the bacteria from host defenses and antibiotics. This may explain the observation that roughly one half of all second UTIs are caused by the same E. coli strain that caused the initial UTI .
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Urinary Tract Infections In Boys
Urinary tract infections in boys are the result of bacteria getting into the bladder and staying there. UTIs are common in kids, especially girls and uncircumcised boys. E. Coli, responsible for over 75% of UTIs, doubles every 20 minutes in the bladder. That means if there are 100 bacteria of E. Coli in the bladder and you wait three hours to go to the bathroom, you will have over 50,000 bacteria in your bladder. The more bacteria in the bladder and the longer it stays there, the more likely you are to get a UTI.
There are many things that can be done to both treat urinary tract infections in boys and prevent them in the future.
Treatments For Urinary And Kidney Infections
Kidney infections always require antibiotics. Dont rely on home remedies alone to take care of kidney infections.
Usually, doctors will prescribe empiric antibiotics to cover all the potential bacteria that could have caused the infection until they can target the specific bacteria based on test results. Antibiotics are usually prescribed for at least a full week.
Normally, you wont require a stay at a hospital for a kidney infection as long as you can move around and consistently keep down oral antibiotics.
However, if you exhibit severe symptoms or cannot keep down the medication due to nausea and vomiting, you may be hospitalized so that your doctor may administer antibiotics and fluids intravenously.
If the kidney infection progresses enough to create an abscess in the kidney, you may require more serious treatment. Abscesses cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In order to drain them, doctors will perform a nephrostomy, which involves placing a tube through your back, into the kidney.
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