Sunday, November 27, 2022

Medicine For Cats With Urinary Tract Infection

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Are Some Cats Predisposed To Utis

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in Cats – Dr. Justine Lee

Older female cats, and cats with diabetes mellitus , develop UTIs more commonly than the general population. Cats who have bladder stones are prone to recurrent UTIs, pointing out the importance of getting a complete diagnosis whenever there are signs of disease in the urinary tract. Bladder stones must be removed or dissolved in order to restore bladder health .

When Should You Go To The Vet

If left untreated, a UTI can get worse and cause additional problems for your feline. Bladder stones and even kidney infections can develop if the UTI isnt addressed in time. Worse, UTIs can even lead to FLUTD.

At the first sign of any UTI symptoms, you might be able to head off the infection and cure it early with one or more of the at-home natural remedies weve shared with you. But if things continue to get worse, youll need to take your cat to see a professional and ensure it gets the proper care necessary for treating a full-blown UTI.

If your cat is completely unable to urinate, youll need to take it to the vet. Likewise, if you see that their urine is bloody, things might be getting serious and you need to see a vet. Also, seek professional help if your cat is in high levels of pain.

Your vet can determine whether a UTI is the real issue or not and then treat the problem from there. They often use antibiotics to cure such ailments and this might be the only option if your cats UTI has progressed past the beginning stages.

Treating Utis In Cats

Antibiotics will be prescribed to kill the bacteria in the bladder and symptomatic treatment may also be necessary to ease a cat’s discomfort. This usually includes pain medications. Probiotics may also be recommended to restore a healthy population of bacteria in the gut after the antibiotics since beneficial bacteria may also be wiped out by a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

The choice of antibiotic should be guided by the culture and sensitivity results, however, ease of administration, such as pills vs. liquid vs. injection, may also play a role in addition to any underlying conditions your cat may have.

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How Vets Diagnose Utis In Cats

Vets diagnose urinary tract infections by collecting a urine sample and examining it for the presence of bacteria. These samples must be collected through a process called cystocentesis, where urine is drawn directly from the bladder with a fine needle. This is necessary to prevent contamination of the urine sample from cups, tables, or any other surface the urine may come into contact with.

After cystocentesis, your veterinarian will run a culture-and-sensitivity test. During this test, the bacteria are isolated and studied. This helps the vet determine the best antibiotics for your cats exact infection.

Occasionally, acute infectionsespecially first-time infections that show up suddenlyare treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic without trying to determine which bacteria are involved.

Chronic infections, however, almost always require more testing to isolate the type of bacteria causing the problem and identify the best antibiotic.

My Cat Suddenly Began Going To The Litterbox Very Frequently A Sample Of Urine Revealed A Bladder Infection How Did This Happen

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While urinary tract disorders are fairly common in cats, urinary tract infections are fairly uncommon. Cats with UTIs try to urinate very frequently, they may pass only small amounts of urine, they may strain to urinate, they may cry out or whine when urinating, and there may be blood visible in their urine. Urinating outside of the litterbox is also a red flag that something is wrong in the bladder. Finally, frequent licking around the rear end may signal that a UTI is present.

Generally, a UTI occurs when bacteria travel up the urethra and into the bladder. Urine in the bladder is supposed to be sterile, but once bacteria find their way to the bladder, the bacteria can grow and reproduce, causing the UTI. Some cats will develop bladder stones, with or without a UTI, and this opens the door for additional health issues.

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Causes Of Urinary Tract Issues In Cats

A urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses that have worked their way into the urethra . Most UTIs are caused by bacteria and typically affect the urethra and bladder. Left untreated, they can spread to the kidneys, causing a serious infection called pyelonephritis.

UTIs are not especially common in cats, but other urinary tract issues occur often. Your cat’s trouble urinating can have a number of possible causes, some of which can be painful. Urinary conditions can block the flow of urine or inflame parts of the urinary tract. If you’ve been on the hunt for information online, you may have heard about feline lower urinary tract disease , which is a catch-all term for a variety of possible culprits, including UTIs and the following conditions:

  • Urinary stones, which develop in the bladder from microscopic crystals
  • Urethral obstruction, possibly caused by crystalized minerals in the urine, an injury, a tumor, or an abnormality your cat has had since birth
  • Feline idiopathic cystitis , which is inflammation of a cat’s bladder with an unknown cause. This is a common diagnosis in cats less than 10 years old. A veterinarian may diagnose the condition after ruling out other conditions.

Some cats are predisposed to problems of the lower urinary tract, especially cats older than 10 years and those with kidney disease or diabetes.

Struvite/urate Dissolution Diet Food

Struvite/Urate Dissolution Diet Food, also known as PKD or Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets Feline Urinary Tract Health is a special diet for cats with struvite crystals in their urine. It can be used in conjunction with antibiotics and is not recommended for cats with a history of urinary tract stones or kidney disease.

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Diagnosing Utis In Cats

If a cat owner is observing symptoms of a urinary tract infection in their cat they should schedule a visit with their cats veterinarian. A urine sample will need to be collected either by the owner at home with the use of special, non-absorbent litter or by the veterinarian. The veterinarian may temporarily keep the cat in the animal hospital until it urinates on its own in some non-absorbable litter or the urine may be obtained by cystocentesis. Cystocentesis is a quick and non-invasive technique to obtain a urine sample through the use of a needle and syringe. Some veterinarians prefer obtaining urine by cystocentesis while others prefer to allow a cat to provide a sample naturally.

Once urine is obtained a urinalysis will be performed. This type of test checks the urine for bacteria, crystals, blood, parasites, abnormal pH levels, abnormal specific gravity levels, glucose, and other things to aid the veterinarian in making a diagnosis. If bacteria is present in the urinalysis a urinary tract infection is diagnosed. Sometimes a urine culture must also be performed to see exactly what type of bacteria is in the infection in order to choose a specific antibiotic.

How Does A Cat Get A Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats

There are a variety of conditions that cats can get that affect the urinary tract that is labeled a feline lower urinary tract disease .

A bacterial UTI occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract, usually by ascending up the urethra and entering the bladder. There are numerous causes for cat UTIs, whether bacterial or inflammatory.

These urinary conditions can occur at any age, but are usually seen in middle-aged, overweight cats that dont have a lot of environmental enrichment, are in multi-cat households, are prone to stress, and eat a dry kibble diet.

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What Should I Do If My Cat Hasnt Peed In 2 Days

Go to the vet immediately. Get off your computer, pack up the carrier, get in the car, and go.

A cat who hasnt urinated for 24 hours is at risk of becoming seriously ill. By that point, toxins in the bladder have started to seep into the rest of the body. By 48 hours, those toxins have been circulating for a long time, the bladder is excruciatingly full, and death is a very real possibility.

Best 8 Home Remedies For Cats Urinary Tract Infection

Any pet can develop a urinary tract infection, UTI, however, some cats are more susceptible to the infection than others, male cats, cats with diabetes, and overweight cats are in this category.

As the name suggests, a UTI affects the cats urinary system that is, the bladder and the urethra. There are signs and symptoms you can look out for to tell if your cat has a UTI.

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Home Remedies For A Cat Uti

Once you have diagnosed your cat to have a UTI, the next course of action is to find a remedy. UTI in cats are pretty common and can cause a lot of discomfort and distress to your furry friend. If left untreated, the UTI can lead to blockage of the urethra which can be fatal. Luckily there are home remedies to help in the treatment of a UTI in cats.

Feline Urinary Tract Disease

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FLUTD refers to a number of clinical symptoms. FLUTD can cause issues in your cats urethra and bladder, often leading to obstruction of the urethra, or preventing your catâs bladder from emptying properly. These conditions can be serious or even life-threatening if left untreated.

If your kitty is suffering from FLUTD, urinating can be difficult, painful, or impossible. They may also urinate more frequently, or in inappropriate areas outside their litter box .

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Urine Drug Concentration And Clinical Efficacy

Antimicrobial drugs must achieve an adequate urine concentration, which must be maintained for a sufficient time for a drug to be effective in treating UTI.16 It has been suggested that clinical efficacy is observed when the urine drug concentration is maintained at a concentration 4-fold higher than the isolates MIC throughout the time between doses.9

Experimental studies in rats have shown that the time for which the plasma drug concentration exceeds the isolates MIC correlates to the magnitude of bacterial colony count reduction the longer the time for which the drug concentration remained above the MIC, the lower the urine colony counts.12 Successful eradication of bacteria within the renal parenchyma or urinary bladder wall is correlated to the plasma, not urine, drug concentration.

When prescribing time-dependent antibiotics, shortening the interval between drug administration is the most effective method to allow the tissue/urine drug concentration to exceed the MIC for the majority of the dosing interval.

  • Drug elimination follows first-order kinetics, where 50% of the drug is lost in 1 half-life.
  • In contrast, doubling the dose would only add 1 half-life to the dosing interval.
  • To add 2 half-lives to the dosing interval, the initial dose would have to be increased 4-fold. The peak serum drug concentration achieved by this approach may exceed the window of safety, producing adverse drug effects.

Cat Food/diet Related To Urinary Tract Infections

If your cat develops recurrent urinary tract infections or if he or she is also diagnosed with bladder stones or crystals, your veterinarian might recommend a diet change and increasing how much water your cat drinks.

Cat food for urinary health addresses the issue in several ways.

There are no diets that treat or prevent urinary tract infections, but your veterinarian may recommend a diet aimed at urinary health based on other findings on the urinalysis. Therapeutic urinary diets are limited in certain minerals to prevent the development of stones and crystals. These diets also address urinary tract health by adjusting your cats urinary pH to help prevent or reverse crystal and stone formation.

The right diet depends on which type of urinary tract disease your cat has.

While they can also help to prevent episodes of bladder inflammation, most diets focus on bladder stones and crystals.

The most common types of bladder stones and crystals found in cats are calcium oxalate and struvite. These crystals can be identified by their shape when viewed under a microscope. The type of bladder stones present can only be identified by sending it to a diagnostic lab after removal.

Luckily, many diets are now formulated to prevent both struvite and calcium oxalate crystals, so its much easier than it used to be to treat appropriately. If bladder stones are present, they will usually have to be removed surgically to prevent a blockage, chronic infections, or discomfort..

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What Are Urinary Tract Infections In Cats

Urinary tract infections are not common in cats. Only 1-3% of cats with signs of urinary tract disease will have a urinary tract infection.

Because they can resemble so many other conditions, UTIs need to be distinguished from other conditions, such as crystals in the urine. Fortunately, by running some simple tests, your veterinarian will be able to tell the difference.

In most cases, UTIs in cats are usually caused by bacteria. Bacterial urinary tract infections in cats are generally relatively easy to treat and respond well to medications. Chronic infections, or those that do not respond to regular medication, can require more testing to figure out why your cat is at higher risk for urinary tract infections.

How To Prevent Utis In Cats

How to Treat Urinary Tract Infections in Cats

The best way to prevent urinary tract infections from occurring in a cat is to ensure the urinary tract opening is kept clean at all times. Regular litter box cleaning and the washing of cat beds will aid in this task. Overweight cats may have trouble cleaning themselves and may need help keeping their urinary tract openings clean with a wet cloth or wipe. Adequate water intake will also help flush the bladder out regularly.

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What Causes Urinary Tract Disease

FLUTD is a multifactor disease. There is no single cause of feline urinary tract disease. Veterinarians do recognize that there are components that may contribute to the prevalence of the disease. For more detailed information, always contact your veterinarian. Risk factors include the following:

  • Cats more than 1 year of age are most susceptible.
  • Overweight cats, lack of exercise.
  • History of chronic kidney disease or urinary tract procedures.
  • Both male and females cats get the disease with equal frequency, but neutered male cats have a greater risk of life-threatening urethral obstruction from the crystals or stones.

Nutritional Risks: You already know that the food you feed your cat is extremely important to her overall health. But feeding the wrong food can contribute to the development of a urinary tract disease . With FLUTD, crystals or stones form within the urinary tract and cause irritation, pain and possibly blockage. In severe cases, this can lead to kidney damage or may even be fatal if not properly treated.

  • An abundance of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium â often found in grocery store brand cat food â can cause crystals to form in the urine, which sometimes leads to urinary stones.
  • Food influences the pH, or acidity, of urine. Urine should be moderately acidic for a healthy urinary tract because its harder for struvite crystals to grow in an acidic environment

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When To See A Vet

These at-home treatments and remedies may be effective for clearing up minor infections, but more serious infections need to be treated by a professional animal doctor.

If your cat is experiencing mild or moderate symptoms, you can try these remedies to relieve their symptoms. If their symptoms show no sign of improvement in a few days, talk to a veterinarian. If your cat seems to be in pain or is unable to pass urine, see a vet immediately. This could be a sign of urethral obstruction, which can be fatal if not treated within 24 to 48 hours.

A vet may be able to prescribe antibiotics to target the harmful bacteria. Be sure to give your cat the full dose of prescribed antibiotics to prevent the UTI from returning or becoming resistant to treatment.

Even if youre pursuing professional treatment, these remedies can be effectively used alongside antibiotics to strengthen the bladder and balance your cats pH levels. Some can also be used as a daily supplement to prevent the UTI from coming back.

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What Is A Cat Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection can affect any part of the cats urinary system.

This can include the bladder, the urethra , or even the kidneys.

An important fact to know about cat UTIs is that its not always a bacterial infection. Your cat may have inflammation in their bladder without an infection which is called cat cystitis or sterile urinary tract inflammation.

How Do Cats Get Utis

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As mentioned, cats get UTIs from bacterial infections in their bladder or urethra. More rarely, UTIs can be caused by fungal infections. Other causes of cat UTIs include:

  • A suppressed immune system in cats with other concurrent illnesses, like diabetes, Cushings syndrome, or cancer

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Bacterial Growth And Susceptibility Testing

Bacterial growth was observed in 5 of 20 urine samples of female cats and in 11 of 41 samples of male cats . Three in five cats with bacterial LUTI were 1 year old or younger, 9/38 27 years old and 4/18 8 years old or older . In this study, no significant difference was found between female and male cats with bacterial LUTI . The differences among age groups were also not significant .

Antimicrobial susceptibility tests results showed that 13 of 16 isolates were susceptible to cefovecin. E. avium and S. epidermidis isolates were resistant and Arcanobacterium renale isolate was intermediate.

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