Tuesday, October 4, 2022

Urinary Tract Infection And Kidney Stones

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Dietary Calcium And Kidney Stones

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) & Kidney Stones | Dr. Amit, Dr. Swadesh & Dr. Sudeep

Only lower your calcium intake below that of a normal diet if instructed by your doctor. Decreased calcium intake is only necessary in some cases where absorption of calcium from the bowel is high.

A low-calcium diet has not been shown to be useful in preventing the recurrence of kidney stones and may worsen the problem of weak bones. People with calcium-containing stones may be at greater risk of developing weak bones and osteoporosis. Discuss this risk with your doctor.

How Long Does It Take A Kidney Stone To Form

You can have kidney stones for years without knowing theyre there. As long as these stones stay in place within your kidney, you wont feel anything. Pain from a kidney stone typically starts when it moves out of your kidney. Sometimes, a stone can form more quickly within a few months.

Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors. They might do a 24-hour urine test to check how quickly you develop stones.

The Association Between Bacteria And Urinary Stones

Andrew L. Schwaderer1,2, Alan J. Wolfe3

1The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Columbus, OH, USA 2Division of Nephrology, Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA

Contributions: Conception and design: All authors Administrative support: None Provision of study materials or patients: None Collection and assembly of data: A Schwaderer Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

Correspondence to:

Keywords: Urinary tract infection kidney stones microbiome

Submitted Aug 25, 2016. Accepted for publication Sep 21, 2016.

doi: 10.21037/atm.2016.11.73

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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

A UTI, or urinary tract infection, occurs when bacteria get into the urinary tract and begin to grow and spread, causing an infection. Most UTIs are caused by bacteria entering the urethra. Often, this is E. Coli that spreads from the anus. Though E. Coli is thought to be responsible for up to 90 percent of all UTIs, other bacteriacan induce urinary tract infections as well.

Commonly, the bacteria travel up through the urethra, and the infection likely occurs here or in the bladder. However, in some cases, the infection reaches the ureters or the kidneys, which can cause additional complications. There are other causes of UTIs as well, including anything that could be blocking the flow of urine and causing it to build up and stay in the bladder.

Since urinary tract infections are incredibly common, you are probably familiar with the symptoms. Just in case you’re not, here’s a refresher:

  • Needing to urinate more often than usual
  • Not being able to empty the bladder, or only producing small amounts of urine, even when you feel the strong urge to go
  • Discomfort or pain when peeing, which can also include a burning sensation
  • Feelings of fatigue and general unwellness, and fever is also possible
  • Urine may smell odd or look cloudy
  • Older people who develop urinary tract infections can become severely confused and disoriented, mimicking the symptoms of dementia

Essentials For Older People

5 Phases to Heal UTIs Naturally

Older men often urinate frequently because the prostate usually enlarges with age Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can make urination difficult. The prostate gland enlarges as men age. Men may have difficulty… read more ). In older women, frequent urination is also more common because of many factors, such as weakening of the pelvic supporting tissues after childbirth and the loss of estrogen after menopause. Both older men and older women may be more likely to take diuretics, so these drugs may contribute to excessive urination. Older people with excessive urination often need to urinate at night . Nocturia can contribute to sleep problems and to falls, especially if a person is rushing to the bathroom or if the area is not well lit. Treatments directed at benign prostatic hyperplasia include oral drugs and surgery for some cases.

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Should I Cut Calcium Out Of My Diet If I Develop Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones

If you develop kidney stones composed of calcium, you may be tempted to stop eating foods that include calcium. However, this is the opposite of what you should do. If you have calcium oxalate stones, the most common type, its recommended that you have a diet higher in calcium and lower in oxalate.

Foods that are high in calcium include:

  • Cows milk.

Its also important to drink plenty of fluids to dilute the substances in your urine.

What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti

Common symptoms of a UTI include:

  • Pain while urinating
  • Passing only a minimal amount while urinating
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Urine may be pinkish or light red
  • Women likely to experience pelvic pain
  • Men likely to experience rectal pain

If the UTI spreads to the upper tract, then more severe symptoms may be experienced, including:

  • Back or side pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Remember when we said upper tract infections are more severe and have more critical symptoms? This is when it gets confusing to tell the difference between a UTI and a kidney stone, because the symptoms between a UTI in the upper tract are very similar to kidney stones symptoms.

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What Are The Common Causes

These stones can be the result of:

  • Family history: you are more likely to get these stones if someone else in your family has dealt with them
  • Personal history: if youve had kidney stones before, it increases the risk of getting them in the future
  • Dehydration: resulting from not drinking enough water, excessive sweat, or a dry climate
  • Obesity: being overweight is linked with higher risk of kidney stones
  • Diets: if youre eating lots of salt, protein and sugar, youre raising your risk of these stones
  • Medications: vitamin C, dietary supplements, excessive use of laxatives, and some drugs for migraines and depression can raise your chances of this condition
  • Medical conditions: inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrhea can affect the way you absorb calcium and water, increasing your risk

These risk factors may lead too little liquid and too much waste. As a result, rather than passing waste substances in your urine, minerals and salts, waste materials you normally pass when you use the bathroom, may clump together and form crystals.

Ok Got It But Then What Is A Kidney Infection

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Kidney Stones with Urologist Dr. Daniel Saltzstein

A kidney infection is, in essence, a UTI that has spread into the kidneys. While this type of infection is rare, its also very dangerous and if youre experiencing any of the following signs of a kidney infection, you should see a doctor immediately:

  • Upper back or side pain

  • Fever, shaking or chills

  • Feeling nauseous

  • Vomiting

While most kidney infections can be treated simply with an antibiotic, if left untreated, a kidney infection can cause damage to your kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease. The bacteria could even spread to your bloodstream creating a life-threatening situation.

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Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Stones

Stones, especially tiny ones, may not cause any symptoms. Stones in the bladder may cause pain in the lower abdomen. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis or any of the kidneys drainage tubes may cause back pain or renal colic. Renal colic is characterized by an excruciating intermittent pain, usually in the area between the ribs and hip on one side, that spreads across the abdomen and often extends to the genital area. The pain tends to come in waves, gradually increasing to a peak intensity, then fading, over about 20 to 60 minutes. The pain may radiate down the abdomen toward the groin or testis or vulva.

Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting, restlessness, sweating, and blood or a stone or a piece of a stone in the urine. A person may have an urge to urinate frequently, particularly as a stone passes down the ureter. Chills, fever, burning or pain during urination, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and abdominal swelling sometimes occur.

Causes Of Kidney Stones

A kidney stone can form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, cystine or uric acid are at high levels in the urine, although stones can form even if these chemicals are at normal levels.

Medications used for treating some medical conditions such as kidney disease, cancer or HIV can also increase your risk of developing kidney stones.

A small number of people get kidney stones because of certain medical conditions that lead to high levels of calcium, oxalate, cystine or uric acid in the body.

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Kidney Stones And Utis: Types And Causes

Kidney stones are caused by the crystallization of minerals, which occurs when there is not enough urine or when levels of salt-forming crystals are present. Kidney stones may be caused by many different things, including calcium oxalate, uric acid, cysteine, or xanthine.

Based on the cause, there are different types of kidney stones, which include uric acid stones, calcium stones , struvite stones, cystine stones, and xanthine stones.

Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria most commonly E.coli. When the bacteria enter the urinary system, they travel to the bladder or other parts of the urinary system. UTIs can take place either in the upper or lower urinary tracts, hence their names cystitis, which occurs in the lower urinary tract, and pyelonephritis, which occurs in the upper urinary tract.

There are two main types of UTIs complicated and uncomplicated. The two are distinguished by the factors that trigger the infection. Complicated UTIs are more commonly seen in men than women. UTIs can also be primary or recurrent, which means the infection is happening for the first time or is returning.

How Can I Prevent Kidney Stones

Soccer legend Pele in intensive care with urinary tract infection after ...

There are several ways to decrease your risk of kidney stones, including:

  • Drink water. Drink at least six to eight 8-ounce glasses every day . Staying hydrated helps you urinate more often, which helps flush away the buildup of the substances that cause kidney stones. If you sweat a lot, be sure to drink even more.
  • Limit salt. Eat less sodium. You may want to connect with a dietician for help with planning what foods you eat.
  • Lose weight. If youre overweight, try to lose some pounds. Talk to your healthcare provider about an ideal weight.
  • Take prescriptions. Your healthcare provider may prescribe some medications that help prevent kidney stones. The type of medication may depend on the type of stones you get.

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How Are Children Treated For Kidney Stones

Most childrens kidney stones can be treated with the shock wave lithotripsy , a completely non-invasive procedure. Your child is placed under anesthesia and sound waves of specific frequencies are focused on the stones to shatter them into fragments small enough to be easily passed during urination.

What Are Proton Pump Inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors also known as PPIs are a class of prescription and over-the-counter medications designed to treat heartburn, acid reflux, ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease , and other stomach conditions caused by too much stomach acid.

The stomach contains a mechanism known as the proton pump, which is responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs work by blocking the activity of an enzyme in the proton pump, which reduces the amount of acid produced by the stomach.

Originally, PPI medications such as Prevacid, Prilosec, Protonix, and Nexium were sold only as prescription drugs. Today, these medications are available in over-the-counter formulations, as well as generic prescription versions.

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How Do You Get Kidney Stones

While we dont know what causes stones to form, we do know some stones form more easily than others. Dehydration, not consuming enough fluids, can contribute to stones forming, as there may not be enough urine to wash out the microscopic crystals.

Calcium stones, the most common kidney stones, seem to affect more men than women and they are most often in the twenties when it happens.

Risks include:

  • Too much calcium in the urine caused by disease, such as hyperparathyroidism
  • Having too much sodium, usually taken in through salt

Although food doesnt cause the stone formation, some people may be told to avoid high calcium foods if they are prone to developing stones.

Cystine stones are caused by a disorder that runs in families and affects both men and women.

Struvite stones are virtually always caused by a urinary tract infection as a result of an enzyme secreted by certain types of bacteria. Because more women than men have UTIs, more women than men develop struvite stones. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.

Uric acid stones affect more men than women and they can also occur in people who already get calcium stones. People who have high uric acid levels may have or develop gout.

Whats The Outlook For Kidney Stones

Pyelonephritis, Pyoureter, Ureteric stones, & Trabeculated urinary bladder.

The outlook for kidney stones is very positive, although there is a risk of recurrence . Many kidney stones pass on their own over time without needing treatment. Medications and surgical treatments to remove larger kidney stones are generally very successful and involve little recovery time.

Its possible to get kidney stones multiple times throughout your life. If you keep developing kidney stones, your healthcare provider may work with you to discover why the stones happen. Once the cause is found, you may be able to make dietary changes to prevent future stones.

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When To See A Doctor

A person should talk to their doctor if they experience symptoms of a UTI, such as pain, fever, and frequent urination. The doctor will conduct tests to help determine whether the symptoms are those of a UTI or a kidney stone. In either case, a person may require treatment.

Additionally, if abdominal or back pain is so severe that it requires pain medication, or if a person experiences unrelenting nausea or vomiting alongside pain, they should seek medical care.

In order to diagnose a kidney stone, a doctor may order an imaging test, such as an ultrasound or CT scan. These tests can also indicate the size and location of the stone.

A urinalysis will determine if infection or blood is present in the urine, and a doctor will carry out a blood test to check for more severe signs of infection.

How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed

Your doctor will review your medical history and do a physical exam. Other tests may include:

  • Urinalysis. Lab testing of urine is done to check for various cells and chemicals, such as red and white blood cells, germs , or a lot of protein.

If UTIs become a repeated problem, other tests may be used to see if the urinary tract is normal. These tests may include:

  • Intravenous pyelogram . This is a series of X-rays of the kidney, ureters , and bladder. It uses a contrast dye injected into a vein. This can be used to find tumors, structural abnormalities, kidney stones, or blockages. It also checks blood flow in the kidneys.
  • Cystoscopy. In this test, a thin, flexible tube and viewing device is put in through the urethra to examine the bladder and other parts of the urinary tract. Structural changes or blockages, such as tumors or stones can be found.
  • Kidney and bladder ultrasound. This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of the bladder and the kidneys on a computer screen. The test is used to determine the size and shape of the bladder and the kidneys, and check for a mass, kidney stone, cysts, or other blockages or abnormalities.

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What About Kidney Stones Are They Involved Here Somehow

Sort of. A kidney stone isnt an infection, but a collection of salt and minerals that hardens and turns into a stone. While some stones may be small others can be much larger. They may stay in the kidney, or begin to move into the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder. When this happens, kidney stones can become extremely painful.

Kidney stones can be tricky, since they may have many of the same symptoms as a UTI or a kidney infection pain when urinating, needing to urinate often, and cloudy or strong smelling urine, blood in the urine, fever, nausea or vomiting. And while stones often pass on their own, larger stones sometimes need to be broken up, or removed.

Sometimes, kidney stones can lead to a urinary tract infection or a kidney infection, so its important to get them checked out by your doctor. And, since the symptoms are so similar, getting a checkup is probably a good idea anyway just to rule out the possibility of an infection, and to make sure the stone is moving along as it should.

Kidney Stones Or Urinary Tract Infection Which Is It

Kidney Stones Blood In Urine But No Pain

We hardly consider basic bodily functions until they become a problem. Pain with urination or in your lower back can be alarming requiring intervention.

Did you know that UTIs and kidney stones have extremely similar symptoms that appear similar, but they affect your body in different ways? Treating the symptoms requires a proper diagnosis. This is not a time for self-diagnosis. Here are ways to learn the differences between the two conditions.

What is a UTI ?

A UTI is an infection that can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the bladder, ureters, urethra, and kidneys. The urinary tract is responsible for passing urine and eliminating waste from the body. Bacteria causes UTIs in the urinary tract. Women are more likely to get UTIs than men with 20% of women getting at least one UTI in their lifetime.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard collections of salt and minerals often made up of calcium or uric acid. They form inside the kidney and can travel to other parts of the urinary tract. About 1 out of every 11 people in the United States will get a kidney stone. Stones are more common in men, people who are obese, and those who have diabetes.

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