Global Urinary Tract Infection Market 2022
Urinary tract infections are common infections that happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, enter the urethra, and infect the urinary tract. They usually occur in the bladder or urethra, but more serious infections involve the kidney. A bladder infection may cause pelvic pain, increased urge to urinate, pain with urination, and blood in the urine. A kidney infection may cause back pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. According to a report by StrategyHelix, the global urinary tract infection market is set to increase by US$ 2,011.4 million during 2022-2028, growing at a CAGR of 3.5% during the forecast period.
The global urinary tract infection market is highly competitive. The report also includes the profiles of leading companies such as Allergan plc, Bayer AG, Cipla Limited, Eli Lily Company, GSK plc, Merck & Co. Inc., Novartis AG, Novo Nordisk A/S, Pfizer Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
The report is an invaluable resource for companies and organizations active in this industry. It provides a cohesive picture of the urinary tract infection market to help drive informed decision making for industry executives, policy makers, academic, and analysts.
Key Benefits for Stakeholders
Contradiction Between The Use Of And Resistance Of Antibiotics Focusing Acute Cystitis
The fact that exposure to antibiotics increases resistance is a problem for clinicians who need to continue to treat infected patients. It is true that the use of antibiotics should be reduced to decrease the development of strains that are resistant to antibiotics. However, excessive limitation of antibiotics for treating symptomatic UTI or for prophylaxis may lead to another cost increase due to recurrence. Therefore, we need to develop a strategy to adequately control urinary tract infections while minimizing the increase in antibiotic resistance.
First, a management strategy should be developed for systemic and localized infections. In the case of pyelonephritis that causes systemic infections, including UTI sepsis, broad spectrum antibiotics should be used intensively. When a course of antibiotics is started empirically, the choice of agent should be reevaluated once culture results are available. Continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns by region is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotics for empirical treatment.
Do I Need To See A Doctor
Yes. Painful urination can be a symptom of a more serious problem. You should tell your doctor about your symptoms and how long youve had them. Tell your doctor about any medical conditions you have, such as diabetes mellitus or AIDS, because these could affect your bodys response to infection. Tell your doctor about any known abnormality in your urinary tract, and if you are or might be pregnant. Tell your doctor if youve had any procedures or surgeries on your urinary tract. He or she also need to know if you were recently hospitalized or stayed in a nursing home.
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Core Genome And Phylogenomic Analysis
Amino acid sequences for each genomes RefSeq annotation derived by PGAP were concatenated into a single FASTA format file, sorted by length, and clustered using usearch via the cluster_fast method . Sequence identity thresholds of 70, 80, and 90% were tested the clusters generated for 80% were selected for further analysis. After manual inspection to confirm homologs were properly identified, the average sequence identity was confirmed to be > 90%. The final set of clusters were next parsed using Python to generate a gene presence/absence matrix for the genomes. Using this matrix, hierarchical clustering was performed with SciPy3 and the Ward variance minimization algorithm. The resulting tree was converted to Newick format and visualized using iTOL . This matrix also was used to identify genes belonging to the core and accessory genomes for the 66 E. coli. For each gene within the core genome set, the sequences were aligned using MAFFT and alignments were manually inspected . A consensus tree was derived by first concatenating the alignments followed by derivation using FastTree . The resulting tree was visualized using iTOL .
Urine Collection And Equc Bacterial Culturing
Pure cultures were obtained by isolating each morphologically distinct colony type on a different plate of the same medium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry with the MALDI Biotyper 3.0 software program was used to identify the bacterial strains . For some of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to verify MALDI-TOF classifications. Previous work by our group showed a concordance between MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing classification of urinary isolates . Strains identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF were grown from single colonies in lysogeny broth . Stocks of each strain were made using 900 L 50% glycerol mixed with 90 L E. coli cells, and stored at80°C.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti
Symptoms of a UTI can vary. And while some individuals experience no signs at all, for most people, a UTI is uncomfortable and downright painful. Some common symptoms include:
- Strong, persistent urge to urinate
- Red or pink-tinged urine, which indicates blood is present
- Pain in the upper back and sides
- Pelvic pressure
When Is Low Blood Pressure Too Low Hypotension And More
Death of soft tissue from a bacterial infection is known as gangrene. Symptoms of tissue death include numbness, severe pain, and skin discoloration. Gangrene affects the extremities and could result in amputation of a limb.
When septic shock causes permanent damage to kidneys or lungs, you may also develop respiratory problems or require dialysis. Since septic shock can also impair your immune system, youre also at risk for another infection.
Related Conditions And Causes Of Sepsis
In addition to the aforementioned infections, germs, and skin burns, having certain chronic conditions could put you at a higher risk for sepsis.
Chronic illnesses that have a greater risk of sepsis include:
The SSC strives to reduce sepsis mortality and improve the outcome for those living with post-sepsis syndrome. The website includes resources for adult and pediatric patients, sepsis screening tools, and youll also find a resource library.
What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary system. This type of infection can involve your urethra , kidneys or bladder, .
Your urine typically doesnt contain bacteria . Urine is a byproduct of our filtration systemthe kidneys. When waste products and excess water is removed from your blood by the kidneys, urine is created. Normally, urine moves through your urinary system without any contamination. However, bacteria can get into the urinary system from outside of the body, causing problems like infection and inflammation. This is a urinary tract infection .
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What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.
More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.
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How Do You Get Infected
You can become infected when you swallow even a small amount of E. coli bacteria. Among the ways this can happen:
- Ground meat: You eat ground meat that carries E. coli, and the meat wasnât cooked enough to kill the bacteria. When meat is processed, sometimes bacteria from the animalsâ intestines make their way into the meat. This happens more with ground meat because it comes from more than one animal.
- Untreated milk: You drink unpasteurized milk, which hasnât been heated to kill bacteria. E. coli can get into the milk from the cowâs udder or from milking equipment.
- Vegetables and fruit: You might eat fresh vegetables or fruit thatâs been tainted by water that has the bacteria. This happens most often when manure from nearby animals mixes with the water supply.
- Other foods and beverages: You might also get E. coli from unpasteurized fruit juices and yogurt and cheese made from raw milk.
- Water: You swallow water that contains E. coli, perhaps while swimming in a pool, lake, or pond.
- Other people: You might get E. coli from another person who has it, such as a child. The bacteria can be passed to you if you clean up after an infected person and then donât wash your hands really well before you touch your mouth.
- Animals: It can be found at petting zoos or animal exhibits at fairs.
You can also contaminate food in your own kitchen if you allow a knife or cutting board that has touched uncooked meat to come into contact with food that will be eaten raw .
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Whats E Coli In Urinary Tract Infection
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Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented Or Avoided
There are many lifestyle choices that can help you prevent UTIs. These are some of the things you can do to protect yourself from them:
- Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. For some people, drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. However, if youre taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor may need to adjust your warfarin dose or you may need to have more frequent blood tests.
- Dont hold your urine. Urinate when you feel like you need to. Some children dont go to the bathroom often enough. If your child does this, teach him or her to go to the bathroom several times each day.
- Wipe from front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly.
- Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria.
- Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if youre a little dry.
- If you get urinary tract infections often, you may want to avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method. Ask your doctor about other birth control choices.
- Avoid taking or giving your child bubble baths.
- Wear loose-fitting clothing , and dress your child in loose-fitting clothing.
- If you are uncircumcised, wash the foreskin regularly. If you have an uncircumcised boy, teach him how to wash his foreskin.
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How Many Strains Of E Coli Cause Diarrhea
Six different strains of E. coli are known to cause diarrhea. These strains are:
- Shiga toxin-producing E. coli : This is the bacteria most commonly known for E. coli food contamination. This strain is also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli and verocytotoxin-producing E. coli .
- Enterotoxigenic E. coli : This strain is commonly known as a cause of travelers diarrhea.
- Enteroaggregative E. coli .
- Diffusely adherent E. coli .
Outer Membrane Protease T
Outer membrane protease T of E. coli is a surface membrane serine protease and is the prototypical member of the omptin family of Gram-negative bacteria . OmpT is an enzyme that catalyzes the activation of plasminogen to plasmin , a function that is physiologically relevant for the virulence of Yersinia pestis
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How Is A Chronic Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosed
If you have a chronic UTI, you probably had a UTI in the past.
Performing lab tests on a sample of urine is the most common method doctors use to diagnose UTIs. A medical professional will examine the sample of urine under a microscope, looking for signs of bacteria.
In a urine culture test, a technician places a urine sample in a tube to encourage the growth of bacteria. After one to three days, theyll look at the bacteria to determine the best treatment.
If you have recurring UTIs, your doctor may want to perform a cystoscopy. In this procedure, theyll use a cystoscope. Its a long, thin tube with a lens at the end used to look inside your urethra and bladder. Your doctor will look for any abnormalities or issues that could cause the UTI to keep coming back.
What Causes Urinary Tract Infection
The vast majority of urinary tract infections are caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli , which is usually found in the digestive system. However, other pathogens may cause a UTI. These include:
- Klebsiella pneumonia
- Enterococcus faecalis
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus
The bacteria may infect any part of the urinary tract bladder, urethra or kidneys. Depending on where the infection occurs, the UTIs are often known as:
- Cystitis infection of the bladder
- Urethritis infection of the urethra
- Pyelonephritis infection of the kidneys
The infection in urethra and bladder is usually not very serious and clears up with treatment. Similarly, ureters very rarely get infected. However, if a UTI reaches the kidneys, it may lead to kidney infections and a person may have to go to the hospital for treatment.
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Biofilm Production By Upec
Biofilm production by E. coli is an important VF which may also protect bacteria from antibiotic action and so contribute to resistance . Recent studies have shown that biofilm production in E. coli , mediated by co-expression of curli and cellulose, supports long-term survival of UPEC in the urinary tract by surrounding the organism with an inert, hydrophobic extracellular matrix . Most studies of biofilm formation in UTI have addressed its role in recurrences.
Curli belong to a class of fibers known as amyloids and are involved in adhesion to surfaces, cell aggregation and, finally, biofilm development. Curli fibers are encoded in the curling subunit gene gene cluster, made up of two differently transcribed operons. One operon codes for csgB, csgA , and the other one for csgD, csgE , and csgG . Expression of both curli operons is important for curli fiber assembly. Curli fibers are also essential for internalization of bacteria during an infection .
Chronic Urinary Tract Infection
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What is a chronic urinary tract infection?
Chronic urinary tract infections are infections of the urinary tract that either dont respond to treatment or keep recurring. They may either continue to affect your urinary tract despite getting the right treatment, or they may recur after treatment.
Your urinary tract is the pathway that makes up your urinary system. It includes the following:
- Your kidneys filter your blood and generate body waste in the form of urine.
- Your ureters are tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
- Your bladder collects and stores urine.
- Your urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of your body.
A UTI can affect any part of your urinary system. When an infection only affects your bladder, its usually a minor illness that can be easily treated. However, if it spreads to your kidneys, you may suffer from serious health consequences, and may even need to be hospitalized.
Although UTIs can happen to anyone at any age, theyre more prevalent in women. In fact, the
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Small Compounds Targeting Urease
Urease, an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several uropathogenic bacteria such as P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp. . This enzyme leads to the alkalinization of the urine and the production of struvite and carbonate apatite that make up the major component of urinary stones . These conditions lead to the inflammation of the urogenital epithelia thus increasing the risk of catheter-associated biofilm formation that may contribute to pyelonephritis , mainly due to both bacterial and host cysteine protease .
The most studied inhibitors of urease are hydroxamic acids . These molecules have a high inhibitory activity against urease, by bonding to the two nickel ions in the urease active site . Initially, these molecules were used to treat UTIs by preventing urine alkalization . However, because of the growing evidence of side effects such as mutagenic power, they were progressively phased out .
Through similarly interacting with nickel ions in the urease active site, the phenyl phosphoramidates were found to have the highest inhibitory activity . Studies testing these molecules in an in vitro model and in a rat model found promising results. Since then, no in vivo studies or clinical trials have been developed, probably due to the poor hydrolytic stability of these molecules which leads to a very short half-life .
Mechanisms Of Action And Resistance To Anti
Because tetrahydrofolate is required to make both purines and pyrimidines, its synthesis is important for understanding the mechanism of cotrimoxazole, which is a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Trimethoprim is a structural analog of dihydrofolic acid that competitively inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid. Sulfamethoxazole, which has a sulfonyl group instead of a carbonyl group, is an analog of para-aminobenzoic acid that competitively inhibits the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Over two decades after its first use in 1974 , this drug has remained the first-line treatment for uncomplicated UTIs in adults . Because of the widespread resistance to the drug, cotrimoxazole has been gradually replaced by fluoroquinolones since approximately the year 2000 . The mechanism of bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole is due to drug efflux pumps, the degradation of the antibiotics by enzymes, the alteration of antibiotic binding targets, and the loss of drug entry points, all of which can occur via chromosomal mutations or the acquisition of plasmids .
OXA family -lactamases hydrolyze oxacillin at a faster rate than that observed for benzylpenicillin. OXA-related -lactamases have recently been identified in plasmids from E. coli that exhibit low-level resistance to imipenem and resistance to ertapenem. Plasmid-mediated dissemination of OXA-48-like carbapenemases in E. coli has been observed in many European countries .
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