The Definition Of A Positive Urine Culture
The definition of a positive urine culture depends on the presence of symptoms and the method of urinary specimen collection, as follows and as depicted in Figure 1. For the diagnosis of cystitis or pyelonephritis in women, a midstream urine count 105 cfu/mL is considered diagnostic of UTI.59 However, in diabetic women with good metabolic control and without long-term complications who present with acute uncomplicated cystitis, quantitative counts < 105 colony-forming units /mL are isolated from 20%25% of premenopausal women and about 10% of postmenopausal women.8 Only 5% of patients with acute pyelonephritis have lower quantitative counts isolated.8 Lower bacterial counts are more often encountered in patients already on antimicrobials and are thought to result from impaired renal concentrating ability or diuresis, which limits the dwell time of urine in the bladder.8,60 Thus, in symptomatic women with pyuria and lower midstream urine counts , a diagnosis of UTI should be suspected.
Flow chart for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abbreviations: cfu, colony-forming units UTI, urinary tract infection.
For the diagnosis of UTI in men, a midstream urine colony count of 104 cfu/mL is indicative. However, when coli-form bacteria are isolated, lower colony counts might also represent significant bacteriuria.61
Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis
The specialist uses one of these tests to diagnose:
UrinalysisA sample is taken from the patientâs urine and several tests are performed on the sample, such as determining the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, as the number of white blood cells increases in the context of urinary tract infection.
Urine culture: This test aims to determine the type of bacteria that caused the infection by placing the sample in a medium suitable for the reproduction of bacteria, in order to choose the appropriate treatment method for the infection.
What Are The Risk Factors For Urinary Tract Infection In Men
The risk factors for developing Urinary Tract Infections in Men include:
- Age: Men over the age of 50 years are at an increased risk of developing UTI, generally due to enlargement of the prostate gland
- Blockages in the urinary tract, such as caused by kidney stones, which impair the flow of urine
- Uncircumcised males have a higher risk for UTI than circumcised males
- Urinary bladder catheter placement can disrupt the normal flow of urine, which help wash away the microbes. A urinary bladder catheter is usually used for various medical conditions to facilitate urine outflow
- Weakened immune system due to the use of certain medications or the presence of HIV
- Having poorly-controlled diabetes
- Congenital and acquired structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary bladder
It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.
Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.
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How Utis In Men Are Diagnosed
A urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria enters the urinary tract. In fact, according to the National Kidney Foundation, one particular bacteria, E. coli, causes 80 to 90 percent of all UTI cases.
Diagnosing a urinary tract infection in men is initially the same as it is for women, consisting of a urine culture. But because a UTI in a man is often considered complicated, according to Dr. Trost, additional testing is usually necessary to determine why he got a UTI.
This typically includes not only a urinary culture to confirm an infection, but also a special study to evaluate how much urine he leaves behind after urinating, and an imaging study, such as a CT scan, to evaluate for kidney stones or other anatomic abnormalities that may be causing this, he explains.
If a man has recurrent infections or infections with the same organism, or UTI-like symptoms without a positive urine culture, then further testing may be necessary.
Any man who suspects he may have a UTI should see his doctor right away so that he can begin treatment as soon as possible.
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Uti In Men: Symptoms Causes Treatment & Prevention
Though urinary tract infections are more common in women, they can also occur in men.
In this article, Ill describe the two main types of UTIs in men as well as their symptoms and potential causes. Ill also review how doctors diagnose and treat UTIs in men. Finally, Ill address who is most at risk for getting a UTI, how it can affect older adults and children differently, and which behaviors may help prevent a UTI.
In most cases, UTIs are easy to treat, but they do not go away on their own. Knowing how to recognize the symptoms of a UTI will help you determine when its important to see a healthcare professional for treatment.
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Can Men Get Utis From Women
Men can get UTIs from women during sex, by getting the bacteria from a woman with the infection. However, this is unlikely.
Typically, the infection arises from bacteria that are already present in the mans body.
A doctor can diagnose a UTI by carrying out a physical examination, taking a medical history, and through laboratory tests.
The doctor may perform a physical examination that includes:
- checking the vital signs
- checking the abdomen, bladder area, sides, and back for pain or swelling
- examining the genitals
The doctor may ask if the person has had other UTIs in the past, or a family history of UTIs.
They may also question the person about their symptoms.
Laboratory tests are required to diagnose the infection as the symptoms of a UTI can be common to other diseases.
A urine sample is usually needed to look for the presence of pus and the bacteria causing the infection.
Men may be asked to give a urine sample. A man will need to start the urine stream to clean the urethra, and then collect a midstream sample in a cup. As bacteria multiply quickly at room temperature, this urine sample is either sent to the laboratory immediately or kept refrigerated until later.
The doctor may also ask for a urine test strip, also known as a urine dipstick test. This is a quick test in which a plastic or paper ribbon is dipped into the urine sample and then removed. If the person has a UTI, the ribbon will turn a particular color.
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How Are Urinary Tract Infections Treated
You will need to treat a urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria and fight an infection. Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Your healthcare provider will pick a drug that best treats the particular bacteria thats causing your infection. Some commonly used antibiotics can include:
Its very important that you follow your healthcare providers directions for taking the medicine. Dont stop taking the antibiotic because your symptoms go away and you start feeling better. If the infection is not treated completely with the full course of antibiotics, it can return.
If you have a history of frequent urinary tract infections, you may be given a prescription for antibiotics that you would take at the first onset of symptoms. Other patients may be given antibiotics to take every day, every other day, or after sexual intercourse to prevent the infection. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment option for you if you have a history of frequent UTIs.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Urinary Tract Infection
These are the most common symptoms of a UTI:
- Frequent urination
- Pain or burning when passing urine
- Urine looks dark, cloudy, or reddish in color
- Urine smells bad
- Feeling pain even when not urinating
- Pain in the back or side, below the ribs
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Despite an strong urge to urinate, only a small amount of urine is passed
- Women may feel an uncomfortable pressure above the pubic bone
The symptoms of UTI may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see a health care provider for a diagnosis.
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What Is The Long
Urinary tract infections are uncomfortable and painful. Most chronic UTIs will resolve with a prolonged course of antibiotics, but monitoring for further symptoms is important since the chronic UTIs usually recur. People with UTIs should monitor their bodies and seek immediate treatment with the onset of a new infection. Early treatment of infection decreases your risk for more serious, long-term complications.
If youre susceptible to recurring UTIs, make sure to:
- urinate as often as needed
- wipe front to back after urinating
Why Do Women Get Urinary Tract Infections More Often Than Men
Women tend to get urinary tract infections more often than men because bacteria can reach the bladder more easily in women. The urethra is shorter in women than in men, so bacteria have a shorter distance to travel.
The urethra is located near the rectum in women. Bacteria from the rectum can easily travel up the urethra and cause infections. Bacteria from the rectum is more likely to get into the urethra if you wipe from back to front after a bowel movement. Be sure to teach children how to wipe correctly.
Having sex may also cause urinary tract infections in women because bacteria can be pushed into the urethra. Using a diaphragm can lead to infections because diaphragms push against the urethra and make it harder to completely empty your bladder. The urine that stays in the bladder is more likely to grow bacteria and cause infections.
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When To Get Medical Advice
Its a good idea to see your GP if you think you might have a UTI, particularly if:
- you have symptoms of an upper UTI
- the symptoms are severe or getting worse
- the symptoms havent started to improve after a few days
- you get UTIs frequently
Your GP can rule out other possible causes of your symptoms by testing a sample of your urine and can prescribe antibiotics if you do have an infection.
Antibiotics are usually recommended because untreated UTIs can potentially cause serious problems if theyre allowed to spread.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- Do I need any tests, such as urinalysis?
- What is the likely cause of my urinary tract infection ?
- Do I need medicine? How should I take it?
- What are the possible side effects of the medicine?
- When should I expect relief from my symptoms?
- What symptoms would indicate that my infection is getting worse? What should I do if I experience these symptoms?
- I get UTIs a lot. What can I do to prevent them?
- Do I need preventive antibiotics? If so, should I be concerned about antibiotic resistance?
- My child gets UTIs a lot. Could an anatomical problem be causing his or her UTIs?
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Bacteria And Antibiotic Susceptibilities
Microbiological results as reported from the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Uppsala University Hospital were extracted from the medical records. Bacterial cultures and species determination were performed using either conventional methods or a Vitek 2 instrument . Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined with disk diffusion or the gradient method and interpreted according to EUCAST definitions . Susceptibility to mecillinam in Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp. and Serratia sp. was tested and interpreted as recommended for E. coli in accordance with local guidelines during the study period.
About Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are common infections that can affect the bladder, the kidneys and the tubes connected to them.
Anyone can get them, but they’re particularly common in women. Some women experience them regularly .
UTIs can be painful and uncomfortable, but usually pass within a few days and can be easily treated with antibiotics.
This page is about UTIs in adults. There is a separate article about UTIs in children.
This page covers:
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Diagnosing And Treating Utis
UTIs can be diagnosed by your primary care doctoryou dont have to see a specialist initially. To diagnose a UTI, your doctor will send a sample of your urine to a lab for a urine culture where the urine is processed and evaluated for bacteria. The culture also can tell us what bug you have and what antibiotics can be used to help treat the infection. A urine analysis, which can be done quickly in our office, can suggest an infection, however, the best test is an actual culture.
Most UTIs are treated with oral antibiotics. However, there are superbugs that may be resistant to what we can give you by mouth, and those would require using stronger antibiotics through an IV. Most treatments last 5 to 7 days, but can be longer.
A quick internet search will give you home remedies for treating a UTI, but I dont recommend this. Untreated infections can spread to the rest of your body and put your life at risk.
What Can I Do To Prevent A Uti
- Empty your bladder often. Urinate and empty your bladder as soon as you feel the need. Do not hold your urine for long periods of time.
- Drink liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. You may need to drink more liquids than usual to help flush out the bacteria. Do not drink alcohol, caffeine, or citrus juices. These can irritate your bladder and increase your symptoms. Your healthcare provider may recommend cranberry juice to help prevent a UTI.
- Urinate after you have sex. This can help flush out bacteria passed during sex.
- Do pelvic muscle exercises often. Pelvic muscle exercises may help you start and stop urinating. Strong pelvic muscles may help you empty your bladder easier. Squeeze these muscles tightly for 5 seconds like you are trying to hold back urine. Then relax for 5 seconds. Gradually work up to squeezing for 10 seconds. Do 3 sets of 15 repetitions a day, or as directed.
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Why A New Antibiotic For Treating Utis Is Needed
, PhD, the department head and a professor in the Fitts Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering at North Carolina State University, says its exciting that there may be a new treatment for UTIs because we need more drugs to match with the specific bugs that we have, including for uncomplicated UTIs and for more complicated cases.
Liu adds there currently are limited options to treat the most common UTIs because resistance to one of the antibiotics has been steadily increasing.
Moore points to a 2021 report from the World Health Organization that cautioned there are not enough new antibiotics in development to overcome the increasing risk of antibiotic resistance.
Early and effective treatments are important because otherwise, it can develop into more severe kidney and blood infections that can be life-threatening, explained Liu.
Uti Causes And Risk Factors
The most common cause of a UTI in the urethra is a sexually transmitted disease. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are two STDs that can cause a UTI. STDs are also the most common cause of UTIs in younger men.
Prostate problems can also cause UTIs. An enlarged prostate is common in older men and can block the flow of urine. This can increase the odds that bacteria will build up and cause a UTI.
Prostatitis, which is an infection of the prostate, shares many of the same symptoms as UTIs.
Diabetes and other medical issues that affect your immune system can also make you more likely to get a UTI.
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Over The Counter Medications For Urinary Tract Infections
- Brand names listed as examples do not imply better quality over other brands. Generic equivalents may also exist.
- Use only as directed on the package, unless your healthcare provider instructs you to do otherwise.
- OTCs may interact with other medications or be potentially harmful if you have certain medical conditions. Talk to your pharmacist about options that are right for you.
How Is A Urinary Tract Infection In Men Diagnosed
Your doctor based on your symptoms, physical examination, and the results of laboratory tests of your urine will diagnose urinary tract infection. In a typical urinary tract infection, your doctor will see both white blood cells and bacteria when they examine your urine under a microscope. Your doctor will send your urine to a lab to identify certain types of bacteria and antibiotics that can be used to destroy the bacteria.
In men, a rectal exam will allow your doctor to evaluate the size and shape of the prostate gland. If you are a young man with no signs of an enlarged prostate, your doctor may order additional tests to look for a urinary tract abnormality that increases the chance of infection. This is because urinary tract infections are rare in young men with normal urinary tracts.
Additional tests include, intravenous pyelography, which includes film of your kidneys, may include a computed tomography scan or ultrasound that shows the outline of your urinary tract with the help of X-rays. In some cases, cystoscopy may also be required. cystoscopy, it is an examination method that allows your doctor to examine the inside of your bladder using a thin, hollow tube-like instrument.
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