Tuesday, October 4, 2022

What Antibiotics Are Used To Treat Urinary Tract Infections

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What Are The Best Antibiotics For Uti In Males

What are some common antibiotics used to treat UTIs?

Urinary tract infection in males is a common condition. It occurs when harmful bacteria affect any part of your urinary tract system . Antibiotics are the most effective treatment option for UTIs. Antibiotics destroy the infection-causing bacteria and provide fast symptomatic relief as well.

What Is The Urinary Tract

The urinary tract makes and stores urine, one of the body’s liquid waste products. The urinary tract includes the following parts:

  • Kidneys: These small organs are located on back of your body, just above the hips. They are the filters of your body removing waste and water from your blood. This waste becomes urine.
  • Ureters: The ureters are thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to your bladder.
  • Bladder: A sac-like container, the bladder stores your urine before it leaves the body.
  • Urethra: This tube carries the urine from your bladder to the outside of the body.

Urine Drug Concentration & Clinical Efficacy

Antimicrobial drugs must achieve an adequate urine concentration, which must be maintained for a sufficient time for a drug to be effective in treating UTI.16 It has been suggested that clinical efficacy is observed when the urine drug concentration is maintained at a concentration 4-fold higher than the isolates MIC throughout the time between doses.9

Experimental studies in rats have shown that the time for which the plasma drug concentration exceeds the isolates MIC correlates to the magnitude of bacterial colony count reduction the longer the time for which the drug concentration remained above the MIC, the lower the urine colony counts.12 Successful eradication of bacteria within the renal parenchyma or urinary bladder wall is correlated to the plasma, not urine, drug concentration.

When prescribing time-dependent antibiotics, shortening the interval between drug administration is the most effective method to allow the tissue/urine drug concentration to exceed the MIC for the majority of the dosing interval.

  • Drug elimination follows first-order kinetics, where 50% of the drug is lost in 1 half-life.
  • In contrast, doubling the dose would only add 1 half-life to the dosing interval.
  • To add 2 half-lives to the dosing interval, the initial dose would have to be increased 4-fold. The peak serum drug concentration achieved by this approach may exceed the window of safety, producing adverse drug effects.

Also Check: Labs For Urinary Tract Infection

Antibiotic Warnings And Treatment Concerns

The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs are similar in efficacy. But its important to note that ampicillin, amoxicillin, and sulfonamides are no longer the drugs of choice for combatting UTIs because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In addition, amoxicillin and clavulanate has been shown in previous research to be significantly less effective than others when it comes to treating urinary tract infections.

Also, as noted above, the FDA advises against using fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated UTIs. These medicines should only be considered if no other treatment options are available. In some cases, such as a complicated UTI or kidney infection, a healthcare provider may decide that a fluoroquinolone medicine is the best option, notes the American Academy of Family Physicians.

For pregnant women, some common antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, should not be prescribed because of possible toxic effects on the fetus. But oral nitrofurantoin and cephalexin are considered good antibiotic choices for pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis, according to past research.

What Can I Do To Avoid Getting A Uti In The First Place

Antibiotic Treatment of Febrile Urinary Tract Infection ...

Women are more susceptible to U.T.I.s, as they are commonly known, owing to the way these germs infect: They often travel through fecal residue from the rectum to the urethra this can happen through sex or poor bathroom hygiene. Even taking great care does not make them entirely avoidable.

Here are some steps that can help prevent urinary tract infections: Drink plenty of fluids, which helps flush out the bladder. Empty your bladder after sexual intercourse. Practice good bathroom hygiene, which, simply put, means wiping from front to back.

During the reproductive years, women are as much as 50 times more likely than men to get a U.T.I. However, those numbers even out significantly in an aging population because men wind up getting surgical procedures, or have bowel control issues, that might lead to the same spread of germs from gut and rectum to the urinary tract.

Recommended Reading: Probiotics For Urinary Tract Infection

How To Use Augmentin Oral

Shake the bottle well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Take this medication with a meal or snack as directed by the doctor. Depending on your specific product, this medication is usually taken every 8 or 12 hours.

The dosage is based on your age, weight, medical condition, and response to treatment.

For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time every day.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection.

Tell the doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Complicated & Recurrent Uti

Antibiotics should never be selected empirically for complicated UTI without culture susceptibility results . Management of pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and relapsing or recurrent UTI is often unsuccessful without therapy guided by culture and susceptibility results. However, therapy should be instituted while culture and susceptibility results are being awaited. Rational initial drug choices for complicated UTI include amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones, or trimethoprim-sulfonamide.3

Recommended Reading: What Are The Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection In Males

Get Your Prescription Filled Right Away

Once you are done with your appointment and have received a prescription for an antibiotic, its important you get it filled at a pharmacy as soon as possible. The faster you start taking your medication, the faster your UTI will be gone.

If you usually use next-day prescription delivery or a mail order pharmacy, this is one time when you should avoid doing this. These options can cause a delay by anywhere from 1 day to 1 week . Youre better off using a local pharmacy in this case.

If going into the pharmacy is a concern due to COVID-19, many pharmacies have added options to help minimize the amount of time you are inside the building. Some options to ask about at your pharmacy include:

  • Same-day delivery through services like Instacart

  • Using the pharmacys drive-thru pick-up window

  • Curbside pick-up

  • Paying ahead of time through the pharmacys smartphone app to make your time spent at the checkout counter faster

Every pharmacy is different, so make sure to ask your personal pharmacy if these options are available at your location.

How To Feel Better

Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections with Antibiotics

If your healthcare professional prescribes you antibiotics:

  • Take antibiotics exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
  • Do not share your antibiotics with others.
  • Do not save antibiotics for later. Talk to your healthcare professional about safely discarding leftover antibiotics.

Drink plenty of water or other fluids. Your healthcare professional might also recommend medicine to help lessen the pain or discomfort. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your antibiotics.

Also Check: What Does A Urinary Tract Infection Feel Like

Urinary Tract Infection Antibiotics

Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for a urinary tract infection.

Your veterinarian will perform a sensitivity test to see how the bacteria in the urine react to certain drugs, then check if your dog is allergic to any drugs and then prescribe the proper antibiotics.

If the right antibiotic is prescribed, the number of bacteria in the dog’s urine will decrease.

However, your veterinarian may prescribe the antibiotic without performing the urine culture test.

A urinary tract infection is often treated with antimicrobials.

These are usually taken for 2 to 3 weeks, depending on how much the infection has spread.

The most common antibiotics and antimicrobials are:

  • cephalexin

Small Compounds Targeting Urease

Urease, an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several uropathogenic bacteria such as P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp. . This enzyme leads to the alkalinization of the urine and the production of struvite and carbonate apatite that make up the major component of urinary stones . These conditions lead to the inflammation of the urogenital epithelia thus increasing the risk of catheter-associated biofilm formation that may contribute to pyelonephritis , mainly due to both bacterial and host cysteine protease .

The most studied inhibitors of urease are hydroxamic acids . These molecules have a high inhibitory activity against urease, by bonding to the two nickel ions in the urease active site . Initially, these molecules were used to treat UTIs by preventing urine alkalization . However, because of the growing evidence of side effects such as mutagenic power, they were progressively phased out .

Through similarly interacting with nickel ions in the urease active site, the phenyl phosphoramidates were found to have the highest inhibitory activity . Studies testing these molecules in an in vitro model and in a rat model found promising results. Since then, no in vivo studies or clinical trials have been developed, probably due to the poor hydrolytic stability of these molecules which leads to a very short half-life .

Also Check: Urinary Tract Infection And Alcohol

How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed

Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:

  • Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
  • Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.

If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:

  • Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
  • Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
  • CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.

Other Health Conditions Of Concern

Augmentin for urinary tract infection antonsword.com

Keflex may not be a good choice if you have certain health conditions. Be sure to discuss your health history with your doctor before they prescribe Keflex or any other drug to treat your UTI.

Examples of conditions that could cause problems with Keflex include kidney disease and allergies to penicillin or other cephalosporins.

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What If I Have Frequent Recurring Utis

Within a year of havig a UTI infection, roughy one-quarter to one-half of women will have another UTI. For these women antibiotic prophylaxis may be recommended by her health care provider. With a recurrent course of UTIs, a urine culture or imaging tests may be required for further analysis.

For recurrent UTIs, there are several antibiotic options for prevention:

  • A shorter course of antibiotics at the first sign of UTI symptoms a prescription may be given to you to keep at home.
  • A longer course of low-dose antibiotic therapy.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual intercourse.

The choice of antibiotic is based on previous UTIs, effectiveness, and patient-specific factors such as allergies and cost. Antibiotics commonly used for recurrent UTIs can include sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, cefaclor, or cephalexin.

In postmenopausal women with vaginal dryness that may be leading to recurrent UTIs, vaginal estrogen may be an effective treatment. Treatment options your doctor might recommend include: Estring, Vagifem , or vaginal estrogen creams .

Understanding Drug Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Is Essential When Determining The Most Effective Antibiotic Therapy For Utis In Dogs And Cats

Dr. Foster is an internist and Director of the Extracorporeal Therapies Service at Friendship Hospital for Animals in Washington, D.C. He has lectured around the world on various renal and urinary diseases and authored numerous manuscripts and book chapters on these topics. He is the current president of the American Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology.

Urinary tract infections are common in small animal practice it has been reported that up to 27% of dogs will develop infection at some time in their lives.1

Most UTIs are successfully treated with commonly used drugs, dosages, and administration intervals. However, infections can be challenging to effectively treat when they involve the kidneys and prostate . In addition, it can be difficult to create an appropriate antibiotic prescription in patients with kidney disease due to reduced drug clearance.

Understanding drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is essential when determining the most effective antibiotic therapy. In addition, successful antimicrobial therapy requires appropriate choice of antibiotic, including dose, frequency, and duration .

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Forming A Treatment Guideline Committee

The development committee consisted of a chairman and five committee members recommended by the Korean Society for Chemotherapy and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, one committee member recommended by the Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation, two committee members recommended by the Korean Urological Association, and two committee members recommended by the Korean Society of Nephrology.

What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

Why is it important to treat UTIs with antibiotics?

If you have ever experienced the frequent urge to go the bathroom with painful and burning urination, you have probably experienced a urinary tract infection . UTIs are one of the most common types of infections, accounting for over 10 million visits to health care providers each year. Roughly 40% of women experience a UTI at some time, and in women, it is the most common infection. Healthcare costs related to UTIs exceed $1.6 billion per year.

A urinary tract infection can happen anywhere along your urinary tract, which includes the kidneys , the ureters , the bladder , or the urethra . Most UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra. Common symptoms include frequent need to urinate, burning while urinating, and pain in lower abdomen area.

There are different types of UTIs based on where the bacteria goes. A lower urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria gets into the urethra and is deposited up into the bladder — this is called cystitis. Infections that get past the bladder and up into the kidneys are called pyelonephritis.

Urinary tract infection symptoms may include:

  • Pain or burning upon urination
  • A frequent or urgent need to urinate
  • Passing small amounts of urine
  • Blood in the urine or or pink-stained urine
  • Urines that looks cloudy
  • Strong-smelling urine
  • Pain, cramping in the pelvis or pubic bone area, especially in women

Upper UTIs which include the kidney may also present with symptoms of fever, chills, back or side pain, and nausea or vomiting.

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Can Home Remedies Quickly Treat A Uti

As resistance to antibiotics is becoming more common, many people are looking for ways to avoid using them. While this can be a good thing in some cases, it can draw out your illness in other instances.

The most commonly asked about home remedy for UTIs is cranberry. Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry tablets has been long-touted as a natural alternative for treating UTIs. The thought is that cranberry makes your urine more acidic which, in turn, kills the bacteria causing your infection.

Unfortunately, cranberry does not treat UTIs very well. On the flip side, though, it can be useful for helping to prevent infections if youre prone to them. This seems to also be the case for other acidic fruits like lemon. Just be sure if youre going to try this for preventing future UTIs that you drink unsweetened juice, as sugar actually helps bacteria to grow.

Which Antibiotic Should Be Used To Treat A Uti

There are multiple types of antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections . Different treatments may be recommended in different areas of the country based on regional patterns of antibiotic resistance.

Most patients with an uncomplicated UTI will begin treatment without any special diagnostic test, although a urinalysis may be performed by taking a urine sample. In a urinalysis, the chemical components of the urine are determined, and the doctor may look at urine color, clarity, and a view a sample under the microscope. A urine culture may be order, too, but is not always needed to start treatment. A urine culture can define the specific bacteria causing the UTI in more complicated cases or in the case of treatment failure.

Symptoms like burning and stinging while urinating will usually clear up in within one day after starting treatment. Be sure to finish your entire course of medication. If symptoms are still present after 2 to 3 days, contact your healthcare provider.

More extensive diagnostic procedures or imaging tests like an X-ray may be required if you continue to have frequent UTIs.

Recommended Reading: What Are The Different Types Of Urinary Incontinence

Small Compounds Targeting Bacterial Capsule

Polysaccharide capsule biogenesis plays an important role in UPEC virulence. Like other pathogens, the capsule is used as a defense against opsonophagocytosis and complement-mediated killing . The capsule is also involved in the formation of biofilm and the formation of intracellular bacterial communities . Until now, the human use of small-molecule inhibitors of UPEC capsule biogenesis was not available because of their antigenicity and poor bioavailability . Nevertheless, mouse studies identified two active agents , that caused significant bacterial death .

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