Sunday, November 27, 2022

Rabbit Urinary Tract Infection Treatment

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Can Drinking Apple Cider Vinegar Treat Utis

UTI l Urinary Tract Infection & Pyelonephritis Treatment for NCLEX RN & LPN

Studies, such as one published in January 2018 in Scientific Reports, have shown that apple cider vinegar has some antibacterial and antifungal properties, but theres no scientific or medical evidence that drinking apple cider vinegar cures UTIs. Drinking large amounts of apple cider vinegar could lead to throat irritation and tooth decay.

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Mobility Preventing A Completely Empty Bladder

Rabbits with arthritis or back problems find it hard to perch properly when they wee. They need to tilt their pelvis to a certain angle so that they can empty their bladder completely. If some urine is left in the bladder, that will have some calcium in it. If this happens every time they wee, calcium sludge will soon build up until your rabbit has a serious sludge problem .

Sludge gets into the urethra, and will sometimes block it. Sometimes the sludge will form into bladder stones and these can block the urethra too.

Rabbits with sludge may need a bladder flush to get things moving again. In more serious cases, surgery may be needed. Stones can usually only be removed by surgery. If you think your rabbit may have arthritis ask your vet about pain control. This is important for your rabbits comfort and also so that its possible to wee properly.

Treatment For Uti Symptoms

When UTI symptoms are particularly uncomfortable, a physician may also recommend phenazopyridine to alleviate the burning and discomfort to be taken in conjunction with antibiotics. This medication should not be taken for more than two days and has side effects that include headache, nausea, and changes in urine color .

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Tyzzer Disease In Rabbits

Tyzzer disease Tyzzer Disease , caused by Clostridium piliforme, is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, staining of the hindquarters, and death within 13 days in weanling rabbits 612 weeks old. Acute outbreaks have been associated with > 90% mortality. Some rabbits may develop chronic infections that present clinically as a wasting disease. Infection occurs by ingestion and is associated with poor sanitation and stress. The lesions consist of necrotic enteritis along with multifocal necrosis in the liver and heart. Necrotic patches on the serosal surface of the cecum are typical lesions for this disease. Diagnosis is made histologically special stains show the characteristic intracellular bacterium. Culturing is impractical, because the bacterium does not grow on artificial media. Serologic tests are available from animal diagnostic laboratories. Tyzzer disease affects a wide spectrum of other species but has not been reported in people, although titers have been documented in pregnant women. Although antibiotics used in treatment of other animals have not been effective in rabbits, oxytetracycline has been of some value in limiting an outbreak. No vaccine is available. Aggressive disinfection and decontamination of the housing facility to reduce the presence of hardy spores is indicated with either 1% peracetic acid or 3% hypochlorite.

Mucoid Enteropathy In Rabbits

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Mucoid enteropathy is a distinct diarrheal disease of rabbits, characterized by minimal inflammation, hypersecretion, and accumulation of mucus in the small and large intestines. The cause is unknown, and it may occur concurrent with other enteric diseases. Predisposing factors include dietary changes, a low indigestible fiber diet , antibiotic treatments, environmental stress, and challenges with other bacteria. Clinical signs are gelatinous or mucus-covered feces, anorexia, lethargy, subnormal temperature, dehydration, rough coat, and often a bloated abdomen due to excess water in the stomach. A firm, impacted cecum may be palpable. The perineal area is often covered with mucus and feces. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and necropsy findings of gelatinous mucus in the colon. Rabbits may live for ~1 week. Treatment is difficult and often unrewarding in severe cases, but intense fluid therapy, antibiotics, and analgesics should be tried. Prevention is the same as for any rabbit enteropathy by focusing on an adequate, fiber-rich diet.

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Urinary Tract Diseases In Rabbits: Kidney Disease

Introduction

Kidney disease is a condition also referred to as renal disease that occurs in rabbits. Renal disease is characterized by the inability of the kidneys to maintain normal function. Kidney failure is normally a result of poor husbandry and a diet high in calcium. Other causes such as severe trauma and stroke may lead to acute development of the disease.

Causes

Older rabbits are particularly prone to this condition however, younger rabbits can also develop the disease. Often symptoms are not present until significant kidney damage has occurred. The causes for kidney disease include:

Bacterial infection

Stroke

Symptoms

The symptoms of kidney disease are strongly paired with elimination behavior, but other behavioral symptoms may be observed if your rabbit had developed the condition. The symptoms of renal disease include:

Excessive water consumption

Excessive amounts of urine excreted

Poor appetite

Anemia

Treatment & Prevention

Any abnormality in the urinary system must receive immediate medical attention, as this can represent a life-threatening emergency. Many times inpatient care is necessary until the rabbit can properly urinate on its own. In the case of kidney disease, treatment options will vary depending on the underlying factor of the disease. The permanent effects of kidney disease will depend on an owners timely response to the symptoms as well as the ability of your veterinarian to restore proper urinary flow.

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What Can Be Done

This depends on the cause and severity – in mild cases a change in diet and management can be enough. If bacterial infection is present then the urine may need to be cultured and treatment with antibiotics prescribed if required.

The bladder may be flushed out under anaesthetic to remove any calcium sand . If there are larger stones present in the bladder then surgery is required to remove then.

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Role Of The Pharmacist

It is imperative that pharmacists urge patients who present with UTI symptoms to consult with their healthcare provider as soon as possible to receive appropriate care. Pharmacists should counsel patients on nonpharmacologic treatments and present the option of nonprescription products and UTI home test kits. Patients who decide to use UTI home test kits should be advised on how to avoid inaccurate results and to discuss their results with their healthcare provider. Patients who decide to use OTC urinary tract analgesics should be counseled on the recommended maximum dosage and duration and on common AEs. It is imperative to remind patients that these products are intended only to provide relief of pain and other related symptoms until the healthcare provider is seen. These products do not eradicate bacteria or replace the use of antibiotic treatment, and they should not be used as monotherapy.

How Do You Know If The Dog Uti Treatment Is Working

A female rabbit has urinary tract infection again – Intern Sabrina

Knowing if the dog UTI treatment is working is relatively easy. They will display fewer and weaker symptoms like less whimpering while urinating, less frequent bathroom trips, and more transparent urine.

When treating with medication, symptoms should start to subside within 48 hours, and when treating at home, it is often expected to see improvement within one week.

Within these time frames, your dog will experience less discomfort and better urination, so keep an eye on how severe your dogs symptoms are and note any improvements shown after dog UTI treatment has begun.

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Urinary Tract Infections In Rabbits

With the help of Next-Gen Sequencing technology, several recent studies have revealed that urine is not actually sterile, and the plethora of bacteria that inhabit the urinary system and are considered part of a normal, healthy urinary bacterial community . Urinary tract infections occur in dysbiotic states, where pathogenic bacteria outgrow protective, healthy bacteria and ultimately wreak havoc on your bunnys urogenital system .

One study reports that only approximately 25% of healthy pet rabbits experienced renal lesions caused by urinary tract disease, suggesting that symptoms may be difficult for pet owners to identify and treat . Lower urinary tract disorders are particularly common in rabbits and are often compared with feline lower urinary tract disease due to similarities in presentation and predisposing factors .

UTIs can cause a significant amount of pain and increased need to urinate, and these infections are often caused by urine retention associated with large amounts of calcium deposits . In nature, rabbits urinate frequently to mark territory and consequently void pathogenic bacteria. By contrast, in a domestic setting rabbits may not have the stimuli needed to mark territory moreover, sedentary/overweight rabbits may hunch when they urinate and retain urine longer than normal . Ultimately, this retention can cause sedimentation of urine within the bladder, producing thick, sludge-like excretions which may result in secondary bacterial infections .

What Can I Do To Protect My Pet

The level of calcium excreted into the urine is directly linked to the amount of calcium the rabbit eats in its diet. Ensure you do not feed excessive calcium and avoid high calcium vegetables such as kale and spinach .

Ensure the housing allows space for rabbits to exercise and hop around – helping reduce the calcium sand in the bladder by shaking it up and allowing it to exit the bladder rather than just settling in the bladder and staying there .

Make sure there is unrestricted access to fresh water to encourage water intake and offer water in different bowls/bottles. Rabbits are likely to drink more from a bowl. Offer good quality hay ad lib – this will increase water intake.

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Risk Factors For Utis In Rabbits

Predisposing factors for UTIs vary between different countries due to loss of mobility , a high calcium diet, loss of balance , and/or lack of social factors stimulating marking behavior . In general, female rabbits have been found to have a higher number of bacterial isolates than males, although this data was collected through a culture-based method . Notably, while high calcium does not always translate to UTI manifestation, low calcium levels in rabbit food serve as a protective factor against the development of sludgy urine and related urine disorders .

New And Powerful Diagnostic Alternative

Sherwood Pet Health Urinary Support Tablet For Rabbits

The MiDOG All-in-One microbiome test may provide the answer to the diagnostic conundrum that rabbit UTIs pose. Utilizing next-generation sequencing technology to detect and quantify all microbial DNA through untargeted and comprehensive sequencing and quantitative comparisons to reference databases, the MiDOG NGS technology provides a useful opportunity to shed light on the microbial makeup of your rabbits urine for clinical application. The MiDOG microbiome test is a microbial identification test grounded on scientific research that provides veterinarians DNA evidence for the guided treatment of rabbit infections, such as UTIs.

The MiDOG All-in-One Test has helped veterinarians to treat chronic UTIs in the past. Read one of our case studies here to learn more:

Link to case study:

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Diagnosis Of Infection In The Bladder Or Urinary Tract In Rabbits

After a regular exam, if a UTI or bladder infection is suspected, a urinalysis is often performed. This may be accompanied by a microscopic examination, and a cystocentesis, wherein a needle is inserted into the bladder to extract a sterile sample for testing. Testing of this sample can confirm what kind of bacteria is infecting your rabbit, and lead your veterinarian to the appropriate antibiotics to prescribe.

In cases where stones, blockages or other more severe issues are suspected, X-rays, urine cultures, and blood tests will be performed. Stones should be able to be detected on X-rays. Bladder disease can be confirmed with a urine culture, blood work, and a complete blood count. If the case is indeed severe, often veterinarians will check to see if the kidneys are affected, and to what extent.

What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary system. This type of infection can involve your urethra , kidneys or bladder, .

Your urine typically doesnt contain bacteria . Urine is a byproduct of our filtration systemthe kidneys. When waste products and excess water is removed from your blood by the kidneys, urine is created. Normally, urine moves through your urinary system without any contamination. However, bacteria can get into the urinary system from outside of the body, causing problems like infection and inflammation. This is a urinary tract infection .

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Recommendations For Uti Prevention

To prevent urinary tract infection, some research suggests that the following may be helpful:

  • Increasing fluid intake: The doctor may recommend increased fluid intake to help flush bacteria out of the urinary system.
  • Drinking cranberry juice: Drinking 8 ounces of cranberry juice a day may help prevent recurrent UTIs. People who take blood thinners such as warfarin or are prone to kidney stones should check with a physician before trying this approach.
  • Proper hygiene: Regular bathing keeps the genital area bacteria free, and women should wipe front-to-back after using the bathroom so as to avoid introducing bacteria into the urethra.

Lung And Airway Disorders

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

Pasteurellosis, a bacterial infection caused by Pasteurella multocida, is common in domestic rabbits. It is highly contagious and is transmitted primarily by direct contact, although transmission by coughing or sneezing may also occur. In rabbit colonies, 30% to 90% of apparently healthy rabbits may be carriers that show no signs of the disease. Pasteurellosis can cause rhinitis , pneumonia, abscesses , reproductive tract infections, head tilt, and blood infection.

Rhinitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the air passages and lungs. The condition can appear suddenly or it can be long-lasting. Pasteurella bacteria are the usual culprits, but other bacteria may cause rhinitis. The initial sign is a thin, watery discharge from the nose and eyes. The discharge later becomes thicker, like pus. Because affected rabbits paw at the nose, the fur on the inside of the front legs just above the paws may be matted with dried discharge or may have thin fur. Infected rabbits usually sneeze and cough. In general, rhinitis occurs when the resistance of the rabbit is low. Rabbits that recover are likely carriers.

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Reportable Diseases Found In Rabbits

Some diseases of rabbits can also infect people and are considered to be public health concerns. Veterinarians or laboratories that diagnose one of these diseases must report it to certain local, state, and national agencies. Reporting a disease allows these agencies to identify trends in disease occurrence.

The following are reportable diseases in rabbits:

  • Rabbit calicivirus disease

Rabbit calicivirus disease, also known as viral hemorrhagic disease, is highly infectious in European rabbits . Cottontail rabbits and jackrabbits are not susceptible. Humans and other mammals are also not affected. The calicivirus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by direct contact with infected rabbits or indirectly by inanimate objects. Infection results in fever and causes liver damage, inflammation of the intestines, and damage to lymph nodes, followed by a disorder of blood clotting and bleeding within multiple organs. Rabbits show few signs and die within 24 hours of fever onset. The infection rate in an affected group is often close to 100% and the death rate is 60% to 90%.

Coccidiosis is a common disease in rabbits across the world. It is caused by protozoa . There are 2 forms of the disease: hepatic, which affects the liver, and intestinal, which affects the intestines. Both types are caused by Eimeria protozoa. Transmission of both forms is by ingestion, usually in contaminated feed or water. Rabbits that recover frequently become carriers.

Benefits Of Antibiotics For Utis

Antibiotics are the standard treatment for UTIs because they kill the bacteria responsible for the infections. Most UTIs develop when bacteria enter the urinary tract from outside the body. The species most likely to cause UTIs include:

More severe risks of using antibiotics include:

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What Are Urinary Tract Stones

Urolithiasis is also known as bladder stones, cystitis, kidney stones, urethritis, and urinary calculi. These stones can irritate the lining of the urinary tract which in turn may cause blood in the urine, difficulties urinating, discomfort, pain, as well as full or partial blockage.

With this condition, urination can become severely painful and almost impossible. If your rabbit is unable to urinate, it means that he is unable to rid himself of excess calcium or waste, which could result in death.

Because of the potential danger, it is recommended that you take your rabbit to the veterinarian as soon as you notice any symptoms that may be a sign of this condition. Prognosis is relatively good. However, there isn’t a known cure to prevent the stones from forming, or reappearing after treatment.

Even in the best of conditions with the best of care, rabbits can acquire stones which are the formation of crystals within the urinary tract. This condition is also known as urolithiasis and can occur in any of the organs within the urinary tract.

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Symptoms Of Infection In The Bladder Or Urinary Tract In Rabbits

Sherwood Pet Health Urinary Support Tablet For Rabbits

Symptoms of a bladder or urinary tract infection include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Straining to urinate, or a hunched posture while urinating
  • Blood in the urine
  • Brown or beige colored urine
  • Thick or cloudy urine
  • Cries or grunts when urinating, being handled or moving
  • Changes in litter box behavior
  • Urine scald, or red irritated skin where there is prolonged urine contact
  • Bladder sludge or stones
  • Loss of fur near genitals or hindquarters

Symptoms of renal disease can include:

  • Urine odor coming from mouth
  • Increased water consumption

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