Antimicrobial Treatment Of Subclinical Bacteriuria
Currently, the clinical relevance of subclinical bacteriuria is uncertain, and its optimal treatment requires clarification.12 In healthy women, and in women and men with comorbidities, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common.92 Several randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses with high numbers of patients have shown that antimicrobial treatment does not benefit asymptomatic individuals but is instead associated with negative effects, such as adverse drug reactions and increased antimicrobial resistance.9395 Therefore, guidelines for antimicrobial use in human medicine contain strong recommendations against screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria. In one study of older cats, subclinical bacteriuria was not adversely associated with survival despite withholding antimicrobial treatment.31
Overweight Cats Appear To Be At Greater Risk
Is your cat overweight? If so, being overweight appears to increase the risk of cats developing a urinary tract infection. Anecdotally, this seems to stem from the fact that overweight cats may have more trouble grooming the perineal region , which can allow dirt, dried poop, litter, and other bacterial-laden items to accumulatewhich can cause an infection in the urinary tract.
When monitoring your cat at home, watch for constant attempts to groom back there even if they cant reach itas this can indicate the pain and discomfort associated with a UTI.
The good news is you can help to prevent UTIs from home, especially if your cat is on the larger size. And its simple! Using unscented, pet-safe baby wipes, try to clean the area daily with some gentle washing and wiping. If your cat if long-haired, consider keeping the hair in that area trimmed a bit shorter, to make it less likely for debris to stick to the haircoat in that region.
Blood In Cat Urine: 7 Common Causes
Urinary tract conditions are common in cats and can range from urinary tract infections to bladder and kidney stones. Cats who have had a urinary problem in the past are more likely to experience a recurrence in the future.
The presence of blood in a cats urine can be quite concerning for pet parents. There are a few different causes of blood-tinged urine in cats. Well look more closely at those causes and explain what steps you should take towards receiving a diagnosis and treatment plan.
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Reducing Stress For Your Pet
Reducing stress for your pet can help prevent urinary tract infections from coming back or developing into a more serious condition.
Try these tips for reducing stress for your cat:
- Spend more time together.
- Give your feline friend access to windows or more toys.
- Regularly clean litter boxes or increase the number of available litter boxes.
Catching a urinary tract infection early can help ease the stress and discomfort for both you and your cat. If you have questions or need to schedule an appointment, please contact us.
Signs And Diagnosis Of Male Cat Urinary Blockage
The most common sign of what veterinarians call a “blocked cat” is going to the litter box to urinate, getting into position and having nothing come out. Your cat may also seem uncomfortable or yowl when trying to urinate. If the blockage continues, your cat will develop an electrolyte imbalance, which can result in a depressed or altered mental state, vomiting and a slow heart rate. They may also hide or avoid human contact.
The veterinarian will diagnose your cat based on their medical history, a physical examination, blood and urine tests and, possibly, an abdominal X-ray or ultrasound. If they suspect that your cat has a bladder infection, the vet may submit a urine sample for culture.
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What Are Urinary Tract Infections In Cats
Urinary tract infections are not common in cats. Only 1-3% of cats with signs of urinary tract disease will have a urinary tract infection.
Because they can resemble so many other conditions, UTIs need to be distinguished from other conditions, such as crystals in the urine. Fortunately, by running some simple tests, your veterinarian will be able to tell the difference.
In most cases, UTIs in cats are usually caused by bacteria. Bacterial urinary tract infections in cats are generally relatively easy to treat and respond well to medications. Chronic infections, or those that do not respond to regular medication, can require more testing to figure out why your cat is at higher risk for urinary tract infections.
Can A Uti Or Kidney Infection Cause Vaginal Bleeding
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What Causes Urinary Tract Infections In Cats
Infection can occur when bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra, which is the tube that transports urine from the bladder outside the body.
Urinary tract infections are more common in older cats, female cats, and cats with diabetes, but any cat can develop a UTI. Urinary tract infections can also cause cystitis, which is inflammation of the bladder.
Some cats that develop bladder infections also have kidney stones or bladder stones. Also called uroliths, bladder stones form from minerals in the urine. Uroliths are solid and often feel like sand or small pebbles, though some can grow to an inch or more in diameter.
Bladder stones can cause a lot of inflammation and damage to the entire urinary tract. Both bladder stones and crystals in the urine can lead to a urethral obstruction, commonly referred to as a urinary blockage.
With a partial urinary blockage, the cat may only be able to urinate small amounts. A complete urinary blockage occurs when urine cannot pass through the urethra at all. Because the urine cannot pass through the urethra, it remains in the bladder, which expands painfully. When it cannot expand any more, the kidneys can no longer process urine, leading to a buildup of toxins in the blood.
This is an extremely dangerous medical emergency. Without prompt treatment, a blocked cat could die. Male cats are at higher risk of experiencing a urinary blockage because their urethra is both longer and narrower than a female cats urethra.
What If My Cat Is Not Peeing But Is Acting Normal
Urinary tract issues usually come with behavioral changes, but there are exceptions to this rule. If your cat cant pee but is still eating, sleeping, and playing normally, youre one of the lucky ones. You noticed the issue before it spiraled out of control.
But even without other signs of illness, a cat who isnt peeing is at risk of serious health consequences. Bring your cat to a veterinarian as soon as you can.
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What Is A Cat Uti
A cat UTI is an infection in the urinary bladder that most often occurs when bacteria travel up the urethra and into your cats bladder, growing and reproducing to cause the infection. A UTI is one of several diseases of the lower urinary tract in cats grouped into a broader category of Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease, or FLUTD. FLUTD can be caused by other urinary conditions including uroliths , urethral obstruction, or Feline Idiopathic Cystitis.
While UTIs are painful and uncomfortable, the good news is that theyre not contagious and often easily curable with antibiotics. Lets find out how you can prevent, identify, and treat a UTI in your feline friend.
Feline Urinary Tract Disease
FLUTD, Feline lower urinary tract disease is actually a general term referring to a cluster of clinical symptoms. FLUTD can cause issues in your cats urethra and bladder, often leading the urethra to become obstructed, or preventing your cat’s bladder from emptying properly. These conditions can be serious or even life-threatening if left untreated.
Urinating can be difficult, painful or impossible for cats suffering from FLUTD. They may also urinate more frequently, or in inappropriate areas outside their litter box .
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Cat Food/diet Related To Urinary Tract Infections
If your cat develops recurrent urinary tract infections or if he or she is also diagnosed with bladder stones or crystals, your veterinarian might recommend a diet change and increasing how much water your cat drinks.
Cat food for urinary health addresses the issue in several ways.
There are no diets that treat or prevent urinary tract infections, but your veterinarian may recommend a diet aimed at urinary health based on other findings on the urinalysis. Therapeutic urinary diets are limited in certain minerals to prevent the development of stones and crystals. These diets also address urinary tract health by adjusting your cats urinary pH to help prevent or reverse crystal and stone formation.
The right diet depends on which type of urinary tract disease your cat has.
While they can also help to prevent episodes of bladder inflammation, most diets focus on bladder stones and crystals.
The most common types of bladder stones and crystals found in cats are calcium oxalate and struvite. These crystals can be identified by their shape when viewed under a microscope. The type of bladder stones present can only be identified by sending it to a diagnostic lab after removal.
Luckily, many diets are now formulated to prevent both struvite and calcium oxalate crystals, so its much easier than it used to be to treat appropriately. If bladder stones are present, they will usually have to be removed surgically to prevent a blockage, chronic infections, or discomfort..
Heres What Will Happen When You Visit The Vet
If a urinary tract infection is suspected in your cat, the veterinarian will perform a physical examination and will also collect a urine sample to perform a urinalysis .
Most commonly, your veterinarian will insert a sterile needle through the skin and into the bladder to collect urine . This is the best way to get a sample without risking outside bacterial contamination that could complicate interpretation of the results of the urinalysis.
For cats that will not tolerate this, another option is to put your cat into a cage with a clean litter box filled with a special non-absorptive litter and wait for him to urinate.
Depending on your cats symptoms, the vet might instead insert a sterile urinary catheter through the urethra to collect urine. Unsurprisingly, this requires heavy sedation and is usually only done if your cat is being sedated for another reason.
Once the urine is collected, the vet will run tests on it, including viewing it under a microscope to look for bacteria and/or crystals. Alternatively, the veterinarian may send the urine sample off to a laboratory for testing.
A culture and sensitivity test can reveal if bacteria is present and also tell the vet exactly what type of bacteria it is and which antibiotic is most likely to be successful in treating it. This is important because different bacteria respond to different antibiotics.
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Recovery And Management Of Utis In Cats
Most cats will fully recover within 7-10 days of developing a urinary tract infection, but they may need to remain on a canned diet for longer. Your vet may check a urine sample after treatment to determine if all the bacteria are gone.
Occasionally, cats will develop repeated urinary tract infections. Cats with recurring UTIs often require more testing to determine the underlying cause.
Antimicrobial Treatment Of Pyelonephritis
If pyelonephritis is suspected ,4), and empirical treatment is needed, antimicrobials with a good efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria are recommended. The treatment must be adjusted according to susceptibility test results. Evidence-based recommendations on treatment duration are lacking, and while treatment durations of 46 weeks previously were considered reasonable, shorter periods of treatment have been reported to be effective in humans,91 and the 2019 ISCAID guidelines recommend 1014 days in veterinary patients.12 Repeated cultures during the treatment period are no longer automatically warranted, but should be considered in cases of incomplete clinical response, while cultures 12 weeks post-treatment are recommended for all cases.12 As for recurrent/complicated cystitis, consideration must be given to the clinical relevance of possible positive cultures post-treatment. Differentiation between sub-clinical bacteriuria and persistent infections may be challenging and reasons for potential persistence must be thoroughly investigated.12
Severe necrosuppurative pyelonephritis. Haematoxylin and eosin stain of a histological section of the renal papilla of the same cat as in Figure 1, showing severe inflammation with multiple neutrophils and bacterial colonies bar = 50 m. Courtesy of Dr Monir Majzoub-Altweck, Institute of Veterinary Pathology, LMU Munich
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Cat Urinary Tract Infection Treatment
The vet will suggest the best course of treatment for your feline friend. Depending on the signs exhibited by your cat, the vet may perform a urinalysis. If the vet suspects a urinary tract infection in your cat, the vet will prescribe a common antibiotic to ease your kittys pain, even before getting the results of urinalysis from the lab.
If the culprit is some bacteria, the vet will prescribe the specific cat urinary tract infection antibiotics. You will have to give it to your cat as instructed by the vet. Otherwise, you will only be killing some bacteria, leaving others to grow and multiply. Only your vet could tell how long you will have to give antibiotics to your cat.
Never leave the antibiotic treatment in the middle, even if your cat seems to be perfectly finenot showing any signs of UTI. Unfinished antibiotic rounds give bacteria a chance to return with more strength, developing antibiotic resistance.
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Urinary Tract Infection In Cats
Written bySmall Doorâs medical experts
Bacterial urinary tract infections are a fairly common condition among cats. While UTIs are usually relatively easy to diagnose and cure, they can develop into a more serious condition if left untreated. Urinary tract infections can occur in both young and old cats.
In This Article
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What Can I Do At Home To Prevent Future Occurrences Of Flutd
Depending on the underlying cause for FLUTD, the clinical signs may never, or only occasionally, reoccur. However, recurrence is more common with FIC. To help reduce the chances of recurrence:
- Feed small meals on a frequent basis.
- Consult with your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary conditions respond better to specialized diets. Canned food may be preferred.
- Provide clean, fresh water at all times.
- Provide an adequate number of litter boxes with the type of litter that the cat prefer
- Keep litter boxes in quiet, safe areas of the house.
- Keep litter boxes clean they should be scooped twice a day and the litter changed weekly .
- Minimize major changes in routine.
Signs Of Urinary Tract Infections In Cats
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Urinary tract infections in cats are one of the leading reasons why cat moms and dads rush their feline family members to the vet. Urinary disease is excruciatingly painful, and it can lead to several other serious health issues.
And while we all want to keep our cats healthy, we have a big problem.
Cats are notoriously good at hiding their pain. They face illnesses and injuries with stoic strength, and that can leave us humans grasping for straws when things suddenly go wrong. The best way to help your cat is to recognize the early signs that theyre in pain.
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What Are The Causes Of Flutd
One possible cause of FLUTD is the formation of urinary stones, also called uroliths, in the bladder and/or urethra. These are collections of minerals that form in the urinary tract of cats. X-rays or ultrasound are usually needed to diagnose urinary stones. The most commonly seen uroliths are calcium oxalate and struvite . While a special, stone-dissolving diet can be prescribed to dissolve struvite stones, calcium oxalate stones need to be removed surgically. If the diet fails, or if the stones form again, then surgery may also be necessary for struvite stones. In female cats, it may also be possible for a veterinarian to help a cat pass stones by flushing its bladder with sterile fluids or remove small stones directly from the bladder using a cystoscope when the cat is under anesthesia. A veterinarian may then recommend medication or dietary changes after surgery to help prevent recurrence.
Infection of your cats urinary tract with bacteria, fungi, parasites or possibly even viruses can cause signs of FLUTD. Although bacterial infections are more common than fungal, parasitic or viral infections, they are still relatively uncommon in cats. If an infection is found, your veterinarian will probably look for another disease or problem that may have put your cat at risk of infection. For example, uroliths and diabetes can increase the risk of urinary tract infection.
Feline idiopathic cystitis
Treatment Of Urinary Problems In Cats
We are not always certain what causes urinary issues with our feline friends. But if your cat is having trouble in the litter box, the rule of thumb is to rule out medical causes first. A complete physical exam can help, as well as basic diagnostics such as a urinalysis and culture, and blood work.
If your veterinarian cant find a medical reason, the urinary issue could be behavioral. Often, environmental stressors such as litter box placement, type of litter used, the number of pets in the house, and changes to the environment can contribute to the development of urinary problems. We can help troubleshoot, and sometimes, behavioral medication can be of help.
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