Antibiotics For A Uti
The form of antibiotic used to treat a bacterial UTI usually depends on which part of the tract is involved.
Lower tract UTIs can usually be treated with oral antibiotics. Upper tract UTIs require intravenous antibiotics. These antibiotics are put directly into your veins.
Sometimes, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. To reduce your risk of antibiotic resistance, your doctor will likely put you on the shortest treatment course possible. Treatment typically lasts no more than 1 week.
Results from your urine culture can help your doctor select an antibiotic treatment that will work best against the type of bacteria thats causing your infection.
Treatments other than antibiotics for bacterial UTIs are being examined. At some point, UTI treatment without antibiotics may be an option for bacterial UTIs by using cell chemistry to change the interaction between the body and the bacteria.
There are no home remedies that can cure a UTI, but there are some things that you can do that can help your medication work better.
These home remedies for UTIs, like drinking more water, may help your body clear the infection faster.
Urinary Tract Infection Treatment
If you are a healthy adult man or a woman who is not pregnant, a few days of antibiotic pills will usually cure your urinary tract infection. If you are pregnant, your doctor will prescribe a medicine that is safe for you and the baby. Usually, symptoms of the infection go away 1 to 2 days after you start taking the medicine. Its important that you follow your doctors instructions for taking the medicine, even if you start to feel better. Skipping pills could make the treatment less effective.
Your doctor may also suggest a medicine to numb your urinary tract and make you feel better while the antibiotic starts to work. The medicine makes your urine turn bright orange, so dont be alarmed by the color when you urinate.
Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy
- If a pregnant woman suspects that she has a urinary tract infection, she should see a health care provider.
- In most cases, pregnant women who have UTIs can be safely treated with antibiotics at home.
- However, certain pregnant patients who develop pyelonephritis may require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics.
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Approach To The Asymptomatic Patient
A therapeutic challenge arises when a patient has urinalysis findings or culture results that are consistent with UTI, yet does not experience any urinary symptoms. The prevalence of this condition, known as asymptomatic bacteriuria, increases with age.6,7Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been reported in 50% of women in long-term care facilities, and the prevalence in men drastically increases in those older than 60 years.6 Routine screening of asymptomatic patients is not recommended, according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines.6 The only populations with a proven benefit from urinalysis and culture screening are pregnant patients and patients with a planned transurethral resection of the prostate or other urologic procedure in which mucosal bleeding is expected.6 Treatment also may be considered in women with bacteriuria more than 48 hours after catheter removal.6,8 If asymptomatic bacteriuria is identified in a patient from one of these populations, treatment should be initiated as described in TABLE 2.6,8-11 Antibiotic therapy should be started empirically, but it may require modification depending upon the organism identified in the urine culture.
What Are Urinary Tract Infection Risk Factors
Risk factors for developing urinary tract infections include the following:
- Wiping from back to front following a bowel movement, particularly in women, can introduce bacteria into the urethra.
- Sexual intercourse can push bacteria from the vaginal area into the urethra.
- Holding the urine too long: When someone holds it in, more bacteria have a chance to multiply, which can cause or worsen a UTI.
- Kidney stones can make it hard to empty the bladder completely, which can also lead to urine remaining in the bladder too long.
- Certain types of birth control devices , including diaphragms or condoms with spermicides
- Hormonal changes and changes in the vagina following menopause
- Using urinary catheters, which are small tubes inserted into the bladder to drain urine, can predispose someone to catheter-associated UTIs.
- Surgery of the genitourinary tract may introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, resulting in a UTI.
- Women tend to get UTIs more frequently than men because the urethra in women is shorter and located closer to the rectum.
- Use of douches
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What Can Happen If A Uti Is Not Treated
If treated right away, a UTI is not likely to damage your urinary tract. But if your UTI is not treated, the infection can spread to the kidneys and other parts of your body. The most common symptoms of kidney infection are fever and pain in the back where the kidneys are located. Antibiotics can also treat kidney infections.
Sometimes the infection can get in the bloodstream. This is rare but life-threatening.
Risk Factors For Developing Utis
Some people are at greater risk than others of developing UTIs. These include:
- women sexually active women are vulnerable, in part because the urethra is only four centimetres long and bacteria have only this short distance to travel from the outside to the inside of the bladder
- people with urinary catheters such as people who are critically ill, who cant empty their own bladder
- people with diabetes changes to the immune system make a person with diabetes more vulnerable to infection
- men with prostate problems such as an enlarged prostate gland that can cause the bladder to only partially empty
- babies especially those born with physical problems of the urinary system.
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Can Utis Be Prevented
These tips can help prevent UTIs:
- In infants and toddlers, change diapers often to help prevent the spread of bacteria that cause UTIs. When kids are potty trained, it’s important to teach them good hygiene. Girls should know to wipe from front to rear not rear to front to prevent germs from spreading from the anus to the urethra.
- School-age girls should avoid bubble baths and strong soaps that might cause irritation. They also should wear cotton underwear instead of nylon because it’s less likely to encourage bacterial growth.
- All kids should be taught not to “hold it” when they have to go. Pee that stays in the bladder gives bacteria a good place to grow.
- Kids should drink plenty of fluids but avoid those with caffeine.
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infections In Dogs
Dog UTI symptoms result from inflammation and pain due to bacteria invading the bladder wall.
Signs of a UTI in dogs may include:
Straining to urinate with only a small amount of urine production
Blood in the urine
In more severe cases, where the infection moves into a dogs kidneys, you may see:
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Increased Frequency Of Urination
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common causes of frequent urination.
Frequent urination is defined as the need to urinate more than usual. This symptom is often confused with urinary urgency. It is an inconvenient symptom that can greatly disrupt daily life for a person with UTI.
The byproducts of the infection will create inflammation and irritation in the linings of the urethra and bladder. As a result, the irritation of the bladder wall creates the urge to empty the bladder frequently.
Furthermore, the bladder also often feels full. During each trip to the bathroom, the amount of urine is often less than the usual amount.
The bladder also sends confusing signals to the brain. The body would feel the need to pee even when the bladder might not be full.
Typically, the bladder can often hold as much as 600 ml of urine . The urge to urinate is usually felt when the bladder contains about 150 ml of urine .
Most people urinate between 4 to 8 times, depending on fluid intake, over a 24-hour period.
How Can Someone Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection
Prevention of urinary tract infections is similar to some of the home remedies mentioned previously.
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Prevention Methods For Women
In addition to the above prevention methods, women can also:
- Avoid contraceptive methods that contain spermicide
- Avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method
- Avoid the use of feminine products on genital regions, such as deodorant sprays and douches, which have the potential to irritate the urethra
- Receive vaccination against certain E. coli strains
How To Help Your Loved One Avoid Utis
We dont have enough research to support their effectiveness in UTI prevention, although their medical benefits cant be ruled out completely, says Dr. Goldman.
Instead, he recommends these tried-and-true prevention strategies:
- Encourage sufficient fluid intake
- Promote genital and urinary hygiene
- Ask the doctor about low-dose vaginal cream for postmenopausal women
Dr. Goldman says researchers are also studying D-Mannose for UTI prevention. The supplement, which has few side effects, sticks to bladder receptors that normally attract the E. coli bacteria usually responsible for UTIs.
Researchers also believe D-Mannose may keep bad bacteria from colonizing the digestive tract, which can harbor the bacteria responsible for UTIs in women.
Following these tips should help your aging relative stay healthy, productive and out of the hospital.
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Other Ways To Prevent Recurring Utis
If you have more than 3 UTIs in 1 year, or 2 UTIs in 6 months, there are other things that may help prevent UTIs.
There is some evidence that women under 65 years old who keep getting UTIs may find it helpful to take:
- a supplement called D-mannose this is not recommended for pregnant women
- cranberry products, such as juice or tablets
Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.
Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.
Page last reviewed: 18 November 2020 Next review due: 18 November 2023
Condom Use During Sex
Non-lubricated latex condoms may increase friction and irritate the skin during sexual intercourse. This may increase the risk of a UTI.
To help prevent friction and skin irritation from condoms, be sure to use enough water-based lubricant during sex.
Avoid using condoms that have been coated with spermicide.
How Are Utis Treated And Prevented
A UTI is often a once-off illness that resolves quickly and responds to treatment with antibiotics if needed. However, for some people, UTIs are a recurring problem.
If you have repeated UTIs there are some self-help measures that may help prevent further infections:
- drink more fluids to help flush out bacteria
- urinate immediately after intercourse
- gently wipe from front to back after urinating
- wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting pants
- eat natural yoghurt to restore normal vaginal environment
- find an alternative method of birth control if you use spermicides
There is conflicting evidence for drinking cranberry juice to prevent UTIs. If you want to try cranberry products, ask your doctor for advice.
Is It Possible To Have A Uti Without Any Symptoms
Yes. Symptoms of a UTI can vary, and it’s not entirely uncommon for someone to experience no symptoms of a urinary tract infection. Its estimated that 1 to 5 percent of younger women experience asymptomatic bacteriuria , which is a UTI without the classic symptoms. While its unclear why the bacteria involved with urinary tract infections sometimes don’t cause symptoms for these people, we do know that instances of symptom-free UTIs increase with age. Up to 16 percent of women older than 65 have been found to have ASB, and that number grows to almost 20 percent for women over 80. Other factors that increase your chances of an asymptomatic UTI are:
- Urinary catheter use
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Uti Signs And Symptoms In Childrenare Different
UTIs are the second most common type of infection in children, behind ear infections. Unfortunately, early symptoms of UTI in young children are not always apparent. And sometimes there are no UTI symptoms at all, or your child is simply unable to articulate the UTI symptoms he or she is experiencing. When it comes to babies under 2 years old, parents need to tune in to these signs of a urinary tract infection:
- Fever A fever of 104°F or higher may be the sole symptom in babies. Its also the most common symptom of UTI during babys first two years.
- Jaundice Up to 18 percent of babies with prolonged or worsening jaundice also have UTIs. When jaundice occurs one full year after birth, its a strong indicator of UTI.
- Poor feeding or failure to thrive
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Crying while urinating
Meanwhile, older children generally have similar symptoms to adults, including urgency, cloudy urine, and pain during urination. For children whove already been toilet trained, bed-wetting is also a sign of a UTI.
What Are Possible Complications Of Urinary Tract Infections
- In some cases, the infection can spread to the kidneys and result in pyelonephritis.
- Severe cases of pyelonephritis can lead to kidney scarring.
- In rare cases, the bacteria causing the urinary tract infection can enter the bloodstream and lead to , a very serious condition that can sometimes result in death.
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What Are Urinary Tract Infections In Dogs
Urinary tract infections in dogs are usually caused by bacteria in the urine. There are lower and upper UTIs, but lower UTIs are more common. Lower UTIs affect the bladder and/or, in male dogs, the prostate. Upper UTIs affect the kidneys and/or ureters .
UTIs in dogs are considered either acute or chronic. Acute UTIs usually occur infrequently and are easy to treat with antibiotics and pain medications. Chronic UTIs are defined as three or more episodes of UTI in a year, or two or more episodes of UTI within a six-month period.
A UTI is also considered chronic if it cannot be fully cleared with antibiotic therapy. Chronic UTIs can be frustrating, and though they are often treated and cleared, they tend to return.
What Can Happen If A Dogs Lower Urinary Tract Problems Go Untreated
Untreated lower urinary tract problems can cause serious medical problems for dogs. Along with discomfort, untreated infections can result in partial or complete blockage of the urethra, disrupting urine output and leading to toxic levels of waste buildup.
If your dogs urinary symptoms are caused by a disease or a cancer, the condition can progress if its left untreated, and your dogs symptoms may worsen or increase to include other symptoms. Many serious conditions, like cancers, can be fatal if left untreated. Some can be treated to help your dog live a longer and healthier life, though they are difficult to cure.
Getting the right diagnosis will help you know how to resolve your dogs urinary tract problems and be sure theres nothing else that also needs treatment.
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Treatment For Utis In Cats
If you see any signs of UTI in your cat, take them to the vet. For male cats, it can be fatal to wait even a few hours. For female cats, feed them canned food only and see the vet within 24 hours. You should not try to treat the UTI at home with things like cranberry products, which have not been proven to be effective for UTIs in cats.
Urinary tract infections in cats are usually treated with antibiotics. Often, vets also recommend feeding an all-canned diet for a period of time since dry foods often result in a more-concentrated urine, which can lead to urinary tract problems.
If your cat is particularly uncomfortable, your vet may prescribe anti-inflammatory pain medicationespecially if treatment is delayed a few days while you wait for test results. Acute infections usually receive a relatively short course of antibiotics, while chronic UTIs may require longer antibiotic use.
Diagnosis Of A Urinary Tract Infection
Diagnosis of a urinary tract infection usually begins with a consultation based on the symptoms and a physical examination. It is usual for a doctor to also ask about sexual history, medical history and any instances of previous UTIs.
A sample of urine might be requested in order to confirm a diagnosis of a urinary tract infection. Dipstick analysis may be done first to indicate the presence of bacteria in the urine. This quick test entails dipping a small chemical strip into a urine sample, then looking for certain color changes on the strip which may indicate abnormal levels of blood, sugar or bacteria in the urine. Looking at the urine sample under a microscope can usually confirm the diagnosis, as well as which bacteria has caused the infection.
If an upper urinary tract infection is suspected, a doctor may also recommend blood tests in order to check the infection hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t spread to the bloodstream.
People suffering from recurring or chronic urinary tract infections may be given additional tests to determine if there are any obstructions or abnormalities causing the repeat of the condition. Such tests can include:
- An ultrasound scan of the bladder and kidneys, which uses painless soundwaves to generate an image of the urinary tract
- A CT scan or MRI scan for a more detailed analysis of the urinary tract
- A cystoscopy, in which a small camera is inserted through the urethra to see inside the urethra and bladder
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