Tuesday, October 4, 2022

Urinary Tract Infection And Dementia

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What Can Happen If A Uti Goes Untreated

Can a UTI cause Dementia? – Quick Tip

Not treating a UTI properly can be dangerous.Bacteria can grow and spread into other parts of the urinary tract. Worse still, the bacteria can enter the bloodstream and travel to other organs, including the brain. Without treatment, a UTI can lead to urosepsis, a dangerous and life-threatening response to an infection.

Confusion Linked To Acute Cystitis Or Pyelonephritis

Studies including hospitalised patients are likely to also include patients with pyelonephritis, a condition likely to result in confusion in a fragile elderly person. However, the typical nursing home situation usually involves the suspicion of confusion caused by a lower UTI in an afebrile patient.

The primary aim of this review was not to evaluate the association between pyelonephritis and confusion. The primary question was if lower UTI with no fever in residents without a urinary catheter, with or without localised symptoms such as acute dysuria, urgency or frequency, is associated with confusion. This review concludes that current evidence does not provide a clear answer to this question.

How Is A Uti With Delirium Treated

Since most UTIs are caused by bacteria, they are treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics will stop the bacteria from spreading or directly kill the bacteria. Stopping the bacteria stops the immune response to the bacteria, which should lead to improvement in delirium as well.

While the antibiotics do their work, a person may still experience delirium. If theyre in the hospital, the hospital staff will try their best to minimize disturbing the person in order to lessen their confusion. If the person is a harm to themselves or others because of their delirium, a low dose of a sedating medication, like haloperidol , may be given to help calm them down. But since these medications can worsen delirium, its a last-resort option.

Not all delirium is reversible, though, especially in people who have dementia. Since their brains are so sensitive, an infection may make their dementia worse even if their delirium and infection have improved.

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What Causes Cramps After Sex

In most cases, you do not need to worry about having a cramping sensation after sex, but there are situations when you should see your doctor. Here are some common causes of feeling some discomfort after sex.

1. You Are Not Sexually Aroused

You are likely to feel pain or cramps during and even after a sexual intercourse when you proceed with vaginal penetration even when you are not fully aroused. When you are not sexually aroused, your vagina is likely to be dry. In the absence of enough lubrication, you are going to feel irritated due to penetration. It can cause pain during and after sex. If that is the cause of your pain, you may communicate better with your partner and consider using some lubrication or spend more time in foreplay to have enough lubrication for easy penetration.

2. You Have an Orgasm

Sometimes, you enjoy your sex session so much that you end with a strong orgasm. It is possible to feel bad cramps in your lower abdomen when you climax, and this orgasmic pain may continue even after you are done with the act.

3. You Have Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

You may experience cramps after sex when you are suffering from pelvic inflammatory disease . Usually caused by a sexually transmitted disease called Chlamydia, PID leads to the inflammation of the fallopian tubes and uterus. This can cause pain during and sometimes after sex.

4. You Have Endometriosis

8. You Have Cysts or Fibroids

9. You Are Pregnant

10. You Have Bladder Infection

Dementia And Infections: Understanding The Connection

Urinary Tract Infections in the Person With Dementia ...

Chronic illness can affect your life in many ways ranging from annoying to life-threatening. Recognizing illness early on in yourself or a loved one may allow for a better quality of life and even more time to live.

One such illness is Dementia. Not many conditions devastate a family quite like this one.

Arming yourself with information may help you combat the effects of this disease. Dementia and infections interplay with one another, and learning this information can save a loved ones life.

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Rationale: Choice Of Antibiotic For Lower Utis

  • Based on evidence of no major differences in clinical effectiveness between classes of antibiotics, the committee agreed that the choice of antibiotic should largely be driven by minimising the risk of resistance. Resistant bacteria are a particular concern in UTIs and, where possible, any previous urine culture and susceptibility results, and antibiotic prescribing, should be checked and antibiotics chosen accordingly.
  • The committee discussed that, if an antibiotic is needed to treat an infection that is not life threatening, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic should generally be first-choice. Indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics creates a selective advantage for bacteria resistant even to these last-line broad-spectrum agents, and also kills normal commensal flora leaving people susceptible to antibiotic-resistant harmful bacteria such as Clostridium difficile. For infections that are not life threatening, broad-spectrum antibiotics need to be reserved for second-choice treatment when narrow-spectrum antibiotics are ineffective.
  • Nationally for England, resistance of E. coli in laboratory-processed urine specimens to the following antibiotics is:
  • nitrofurantoin: 2.5%
  • pivmecillinam: 7.5%
  • cefalexin: 9.9%
  • The committee also discussed that prescribers should be aware of their local antimicrobial prescribing data, because resistance rates do vary by area.

Non-pregnant women with a lower UTI

Pregnant women with a lower UTI

Men with a lower UTI

Urinary Tract Infection In Children

, MD, Golisano Childrens Hospital

Urinary tract infection may involve the kidneys, bladder, or both. Sexually transmitted infections of the urethra , although involving the urinary tract, are not typically termed UTI.

Mechanisms that maintain the normal sterility of the urinary tract include urine acidity and free flow, a normal emptying mechanism, intact ureterovesical and urethral sphincters, and immunologic and mucosal barriers. Abnormality of any of these mechanisms predisposes to UTI.

Urinary tract infections can be divided into upper tract infections, which involve the kidneys , and lower tract infections, which involve the bladder , urethra read more .)

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How Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Treated

UTIs are usually treated with a course of antibiotics. However, in order for your loved one to be prescribed the medication, you may need to collect a sample of urine to be analysed. Not surprisingly, this can be a particularly tricky activity to do for someone with dementia, particularly if they dont understand why youre doing it. There are some products that help to detect the presence of the bacteria that can cause UTIs in the urine and can be useful.

Fungal Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infections – Dementia

The most common form of fungal infection of urinary tract is that caused by Candida species. Such infections usually occur in patients with indwelling catheters who have been receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly if diabetes mellitus is also present or corticosteroids are being administered. Although most of these infections remain limited to the bladder and clear with the removal of the catheter, cessation of antibiotics and control of diabetes mellitus, the urinary tract is the source of approximately 10% of episodes of candidemia, usually in association with urinary tract manipulation or obstruction. Spontaneously occurring lower UTI caused by Candida species is far less common, although papillary necrosis, caliceal invasion and fungal ball obstruction have all been described as resulting from ascending candidal UTI that is not related to catheterization.

Hematogenous spread to the kidney and other sites within the genitourinary tract may be seen in any systemic fungal infection, but it occurs particularly in coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. In immunosuppressed patients, a common hallmark of disseminated cryptococcal infection is the appearance of this organism in the urine. Cryptococcus neoformans commonly seeds the prostate and far less commonly may cause a syndrome of papillary necrosis, pyelonephritis and pyuria akin to that seen in tuberculosis.

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How Is It Diagnosed

If doctors suspect that a UTI is present, they will test a urine sample in the office or send it to a laboratory for a urinalysis.

A urine culture can confirm which bacteria are causing the infection. Knowing the specific type of bacteria allows the doctor to determine a suitable treatment plan.

A condition called asymptomatic bacteriuria is also common in older adults. ASB occurs when there are bacteria in the urine, but they do not cause any signs or symptoms of infection.

Although ASB is common in older adults, it does not typically require treatment, unless it causes other clinical symptoms.

The standard treatment for a UTI is antibiotics, which kill the bacteria causing the infection. Doctors will prescribe an antifungal medication instead if a fungus is causing the UTI.

It is essential that people take the antibiotic or antifungal medication precisely according to the prescription, even if they begin to feel better. Completing the entire prescription will help to destroy all of the infectious bacteria.

Which Dementias Cause Hallucinations

Hallucinations are most common for people with Lewy body dementia, an illness caused by the buildup of proteins called Lewy bodies that disrupt communication between brain cells throughout the brain or kill the cells altogether. Visual hallucinations will often occur in the early stages of the disease, though they eventually stop somewhere in the middle stages and wont recur. People with Lewy body dementia often fluctuate between good days, when theyre thinking normally or at least fairly well, and bad days. In the early stages, those bad days are likely to include visual hallucinations.

Hallucinations will also occur for people with Parkinsons disease with dementia, and for people with Alzheimers. Both those diseases are also associated with a buildup of proteins in the brain. With these dementias, though, hallucinations are more likely to be associated with hearing or feeling. Someone might have conversations with an imaginary person, for example, or think theyre being touched by something that isnt there.

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What Damages Brain Cells And Nerves

Damage to brain cells can occur in many ways, including:

  • Alzheimers disease the most common cause of dementia in seniors. For yet unknown reasons, victims develop clumps and tangles of proteins in their brain.
  • Frontotemporal dementia nerve cells associated with behavior, language, and personality have degenerated.
  • Lewy body dementia clumps of protein called Lewy bodies damage the victims brain. Lewy bodies are also part of Alzheimers and other diseases.
  • Vascular dementia damaged blood vessels are no longer able to supply the brain with nutrition. The blood vessels can be damaged in a variety of ways, including from a stroke.
  • Certain diseases such as Parkinsons.

Managing Urinary Tract Infections: Probiotics

A Resource Page on Dementia and Urinary Tract Infections ...

Numerous studies have shown probiotics can be effective in managing and preventing UTIs. The main microorganism involved in UTIs is Escherichia coli, which spreads from the rectum to the vagina and then travels up the urinary tract. Because the healthy microorganisms in the vagina are mainly Lactobacillus species, taking a probiotic supplement that contains these bacteria may help reduce the risk of UTIs.

In a 2017 study, the authors reported that increasing the amount of Lactobacilli with probiotic supplements has long been conceived but has been recently shown to be possible. They also noted that these probiotics may especially be useful for women with a history of recurrent, complicated UTIs or on prolonged antibiotic use.

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Symptoms Of Bladder Prolapse

The symptoms of bladder prolapse depend on the severity of the prolapse, your level of physical activity and the presence of any other type of prolapse.They include:

  • urinary stress incontinence leaking urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing, running or walking, or urge incontinence, which is urgently needing to go and leaking on the way
  • needing to empty your bladder more frequently
  • inability to completely empty your bladder when going to the toilet
  • recurrent urinary tract infections
  • protrusion of the vaginal wall out through the vaginal entrance
  • needing to go back to the toilet immediately after finishing passing urine.

The Effect Of Dementia On Sepsis Survival

Not a lot of research has been done yet on patients with dementia and their outcomes following sepsis. A study published in 2015 looked at patients with COPD who also had dementia. The researchers found that patients in this group had a higher risk of dying than patients with COPD who did not have dementia.

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Urinary Tract Infections In Seniors With Dementia

Suffering from a urinary tract infection at any age is a painful and unpleasant experience. But for seniors and especially those with dementia UTIs can result in additional, serious health concerns.Seniors may be more susceptible to infections in general due to reduced immune function. Certain health conditions including diabetes, enlarged prostate, kidney stones, urinary catheter use, immobility and surgery involving areas near the bladder can increase the likelihood of developing a UTI.

Infections of the urinary tract commonly affect seniors of both genders. Left untreated, a UTI can cause either chronic or acute kidney infections permanent kidney damage and kidney failure can result. In addition, UTIs can cause the dangerous bloodstream infection known as sepsis.

Home Health Caregivers Recognize The Connection Between Dementia And Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infections and Dementia Symptoms

The term dementia refers to several medical conditions that reduce an individuals ability to function. Pegasus professionals are trained to meet the special needs of dementia patients. As expert caregivers, they are aware of the connection between dementia and urinary tract infections .

Dementia results from damage to the cells and nerves in the brain. Damaged cells lose the ability to communicate with other cells. The lack of nerve and cellular communication leads to memory loss and a decline in cognitive function.

Dementia patients experience impaired ability to:

  • Remember new information
  • Speak or interact effectively with others
  • Focus or understand activity around them
  • Use reason or make good judgments
  • Accurately perceive what is seen

Family members will also notice behavioral changes in the dementia patient.

Dementia doesnt occur overnight in most instances. Damage occurs over time. Because its gradual, symptoms often arent noticed until the disease is in advanced stages.

Caring for a dementia patient can be exceptionally difficult for family members. The level of care needed can become exhausting.

Often, a dementia patient does better at home than in a facility. Pegasus home health care makes staying at home possible, as well as relieving the stress family caregivers feel. Home health caregivers provide a much-needed break for families.

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The Link Between Uti And Dementia In Older Adults

Your elderly loved one with dementia may suddenly start displaying more severe behavioral symptoms of this disease and you may wonder why. There could be a simple reason behind it all. They could have a urinary tract infection, or UTI. This is a very common phenomenon in elderly dementia patients. Even if your loved one hasnt officially been diagnosed with dementia, you may notice that dementia-like symptoms, such as confusion, come on fairly quickly. Often, this can be traced to the development of a UTI. Whether your loved one is being cared for in a nursing home, in home care, or in hospice, you may wonder why this link exists. Lets explain why.

According to Alzheimers.net, if a senior patient already has dementia, a urinary tract infection may cause behavior changes instead of the physical symptoms that may plague a younger person. Whereas most otherwise healthy people display physical symptoms like burning when urinating, elderly patients may not complain of such pain. However, they may start to behave erratically, which is usually what tips off health care providers. If not detected early, infection can lead to serious health problems.

Should Catheters Be Used

Catheters historically have been thought of as a way to respond to problems with incontinence, but their use is not recommended unless absolutely medically necessary. The insertion of a catheter can introduce more bacteria into the urinary system and this increases the risk significantly for UTIs. A UTI that develops in someone using a catheter is called a Cather Associated Urinary Tract Infection , and the medical community has worked hard to reduce these preventable infections.

Catheters are appropriate for some conditions such as urinary retention, where someone is unable to completely empty their bladder, but they are not recommended without a specific medical condition that makes the necessary.

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Symptoms Of Utis In Seniors With Dementia

A person with dementia may experience the common physical painful symptoms as a result of a UTI. These include,

  • A burning feeling when urinating
  • An intense and frequent urge to urinate
  • Cloudy, dark, or bloody urine
  • Tiredness
  • Shakiness
  • Fever or chills

However, because of word-finding difficulty, that person may have trouble articulating how he or she is feeling. More often, people with dementia will experience more behavioral symptoms than physical ones. In people with dementia, UTIs can cause sudden confusion, or delirium, in someone with dementia. This can manifest itself as increased confusion, agitation, or withdrawal. If the infection goes undetected, it can spread to the kidneys or bloodstream and become life-threatening.

How Does A Uti Affect The Brain

Urinary Tract Infections and Dementia Symptoms

You may be wondering how an infection in the urinary tract affects the brain? Scientists havent found the exact link between UTIs and delirium, but heres what experts believe is happening.

Any time we have an infection, our immune system kicks into gear to fight it off. During this process, our body releases chemicals that cause inflammation. These chemicals can also lead to many of the symptoms we feel, like fatigue or fevers. In older adults, the brain is more affected by the inflammation and the stress hormones that the body produces to fight the infection. The effects of this inflammation and stress on the brain are what show up as delirium.

So, why dont young, healthy adults get delirium with infections like UTIs? This has to do with the blood-brain barrier, a special protection between the brain and the rest of the body. The blood-brain barrier keeps bacteria, viruses, and fungi that threaten the health of the brain from reaching it. This barrier isnt as strong in older adults, so the inflammation from infection has a higher chance of affecting their brains.

However, not all older adults with UTI get delirium, and not all people with delirium have a UTI.

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