Patients With Lower Amount Of Blood Vitamin D Showed Higher Microbial Load In Urine Sample
We tried to examine if there was any correlation between the deficiency of vitamin D and severity of the urinary tract infection in the analyzed patient group. As it can be seen from the data in the there were significantly higher number of bacteria present in the patients urine having vitamin D deficiency. The highest number of bacteria that was found is in the urine sample of the vitamin D deficient patient.
Serum Vitamin D Level And The Risk Of Urinary Tract Infection In Children: A Systematic Review And Meta
- Department of Pediatrics, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between serum vitamin D concentration and the risk of urinary tract infection in children. Human studies reported the serum vitamin D level in children with UTI and healthy controls were collected from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The strictly standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated to evaluate the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and risk of UTI. The results of analysis showed that serum vitamin D levels in children with UTI were significantly lower than healthy control children . It can be concluded that there is a significant negative relationship between serum vitamin D level and risk of UTI in children.
Risk Factors For Urinary Tract Infections
And now a brief note about reproductive parts: Although people with penises do get UTIs, people with vaginas are more at risk. It all boils down to the anatomy, Minkin says.
Bacteria that cause UTIs often make their way from the back door to the front and then up the urethra to wreak havoc on the urinary system.
Because the male reproductive system has a longer urethra than the female reproductive system, the bacteria have farther to travel, which makes it more difficult for a UTI to develop.
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Study Design And Search Strategy
The present study was designed based on Cochrane guidelines for systematic reviews of interventional studies. The present meta-analysis includes only human subjects. Therefore, an extensive search was performed in the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases up to March 2018 with the use of appropriate combination of keywords related to UTI and Vitamin D. An example of a search strategy that was used in PubMed/MEDLINE is as follows: AND ).
An extensive effort was made to find additional articles and unpublished studies. Hence, a manual search was performed in the bibliography of relevant studies. Additionally, highly focused journals in pediatric renal diseases were identified and all issues were searched for relevant material. A search was also done in the theses division of the ProQuest database and the authors of relevant studies were contacted to get access to their unpublished data. In addition, using search engines such as Google and Google Scholar was another way of finding additional articles.
Nutrients Linked To Helping With Bladder Health
While the recently published research shows a clear connection between vitamin D and bladder health, urologist and female pelvic medicine specialist Michael Ingber, MD, says the reasoning for it still isnt fully understood. But he says one way it is beneficial is because it helps other nutrients linked to bladder health be better absorbed in the body.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, which plays a role in intestinal absorption of several different nutrients in the body. Calcium, magnesium, phosphate, are all absorbed as a result of vitamin D, and these things also play a role in kidney and bladder health, he explains. Recently, there have been studies evaluating vitamin D deficiency, and the effect on urinary incontinence. It does appear that a vitamin D deficiency makes a person more prone to having urinary incontinence.
The reason why calcium is important for bladder health is because it helps with muscle contraction, including the detrusor muscle. This muscle is found in the bladder walls and it remains relaxed to allow the bladder to store urine, contracting when you pee to release it. Magnesium and phosphate similarly play a role in muscle and nerve function. Calcium is also linked to helping prevent kidney stones. As Dr. Ingber explains, vitamin D helps with the absorption of these nutrients, which could be a key reason why its so important for bladder health.
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Using Vitamin C For Utis
According to the National Institutes of Health, the recommended daily amount for vitamin C is 90 milligrams for adult men and 75 milligrams for adult women 2. Certain people need more vitamin C than average. For instance, smokers need an additional 35 milligrams per day pregnant women need 85 milligrams per day lactating women need 120 milligrams per day.
According to geriatric specialist Dr. Suzanne Salamon, an instructor at Harvard Medical School, you should take 500 to 1,000 milligrams per day of vitamin C if youre using this nutrient to prevent bladder infections 48.
This is in addition to the recommended daily amount you should be getting, which means youd have to consume about six to 13 times the amount youd typically get on a daily basis. You can obtain this amount of vitamin C from supplements or naturally, through your diet.
- According to the National Institutes of Health.
- This is in addition to the recommended daily amount you should be getting, which means youd have to consume about six to 13 times the amount youd typically get on a daily basis.
The Science Behind Vitamin C For Uti
Before we take a closer look at the research, lets talk about vitamin Cs role in the body in general.
Vitamin C is an important part of a healthy diet as it plays a vital role in many areas of human physiology. It is essential for tissue health and wound healing, as its necessary to make collagen, an important support protein.
Vitamin C is considered safe, even in the large doses often found in dietary supplements. This is because of its water solubility, which means it is readily eliminated from the body in the urine.
Because vitamin C makes it all the way to the urine, its believed to have the ability to act directly on the pathogens that cause UTI. This is a key part of the theory.
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Supplements That Prevent Utis
If youre prone to urinary tract infections, youd probably do just about anything to prevent the next one. Could a dietary supplement be the key to keeping you infection-free? Maybe, says Charles M. Kodner, MD, associate professor of family and geriatric medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine.
Most people who get a UTI just have one very occasionally, so it isnt worth taking supplements every day to try and prevent another infection, says Kodner. But if your problem is chronicmeaning it never seems to go away, or youre getting a UTI at least three times a yearthen using supplements may be a smart proactive measure.
You might be in this unlucky group if you use a catheter, are pregnant, have kidney stones or an enlarged prostate, or use a diaphragm or if you have a condition that affects the nerves that control your bladder, like Parkinsons, diabetes, or multiple sclerosis.
Even if you fall into one of these categories, Kodner says to remember that supplements are just one part of a complete prevention toolkit. Some people whose UTIs are relentless may need to be on antibiotics for 6 months to a year, whether or not they opt to add a supplement to the mix.
Once you get the green light from your doctor, here are three you might seek out in the supplement aisle.
A typical daily dose of D-mannose is 2 grams dissolved in 200 mL of water, but check with your doctor to see how much is right for you. Some people experience diarrhea as a side effect.
Specimen Collection And Bacterial Identification
Laboratory diagnosis for urinary tract infections are include taking clean catch mid-stream urine from each patient collected into a 20 mL calibrated sterile crew-capped universal container which were distributed to the patients. The specimens were labeled, transported to the laboratory for both general urine examination and culturing. The pathogens were identified and isolated by conventional techniques . A urine culture is positive when 105 CFU/mL of a single pathogen is found in mid-stream urine. Standard loop semi-quantitative technique of inoculation had been used to determine the pathogenic microorganism in significant numbers and un-centrifuged urine in known volume by spread plate method was used. Blood agar and McConkey agar plate were used for isolation of causative organism and incubated for 2448 h at 37 °C . All media were examined aftertimes of incubation, if no growth occurs they were incubated for another 24 h before regarded as negative whereas few samples were identified with VITEK 2 compact system protocols by using these kits: VITEK®2 GN Reference 21341, VITEK®2 GP Reference 21342, VITEK®2 AST-GN69 Reference 413400, VITEK®2 AST-P580 Reference 22233, and VITEK®2 AST-ST01 Reference 410028 .
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Immunofluorescence Staining Of Bladder Sections
Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were deparaffinized and rehydrated and pretreated with 0.3% Triton X-100/PBS at room temperature. Thereafter, sections were blocked for 30 mins with FX Signal Enhancer sections were blocked for an additional 60 mins with the sera from the species in which the secondary antibodies were raised. Incubation with primary antibodies was carried out overnight at 4 °C. Primary antibodies used were goat anti-claudin-14 and mouse anti-occludin . Sections were then incubated with secondary Alexa Fluor-conjugated antibodies for 60 mins at room temperature and mounted in ProLong Gold Antifade mounting medium including DAPI . Tissue was analyzed with a Leica SP5 confocal microscope and quantified with ImageJ software.
Serum Vitamin D Levels In Children With And Without Uti
Four of the six included studies showed that serum levels of vitamin D were significantly lower in children with urinary tract infection than that in controls . One study by Noorbakhsh et al. showed no significant differences between the patient and control groups. Interestingly, one study found that children with urinary tract infections had higher serum levels of vitamin D than healthy children . Interestingly, data from Figure 2 show that the values obtained for vitamin D in the two Mahyar et al. and Noorbakhsh et al. studies have a protective role against UTI. However, other data show that the values of vitamin D in other studies act as a risk factor for UTI , in other words, low levels of vitamin D are known as a risk factor for UTI. Sum up, analysis of the all groups showed that serum levels of vitamin D can be a risk factor for UTI .
Figure 2. Forest plots showing the association between vitamin D level with the risk of urinary tract infection in children.
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Vitamin D And Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review And Meta
Data Sources And Search Strategy
Human studies reported the serum vitamin D levels in children with urinary tract infection and healthy controls were searched databases of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane. The terms of vitamin D,25-Hydroxyvitamin D,vitamin deficiency,urinary tract infection,child,children,pediatric in subject, abstract and keywords were searched in these databases. Studies published from the inception of the databases to 31th December 2020 have been included in the review. The search for literature was limited to articles in English. The articles were screened by checking the title and the abstract and those which were related to our study were selected for further assessments. Then, the full text articles were reviewed for eligibility. The articles which were not available online in full text were requested from the corresponding author through email.
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Key Points About Urinary Tract Infections
- Urinary tract infections are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. These infections can affect any part of the urinary tract.
- Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
- The most common symptoms of UTIs include changes in urination such as frequency, pain, or burning urine looks dark, cloudy, or red and smells bad back or side pain nausea/vomiting and fever.
- Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. Other treatments may include pain relievers, and drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract.
- Other things that can be done may help reduce the likelihood of developing UTIs.
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Dont Be Surprised If Your Doctor Doesnt Rush You Into Treatment
Urinary tract infections can be tricky in older age. Theyre not always as easy to spot or treat as in youth. And the decades-long approach to treatment is changing. Weve been hasty in using antibiotics, and were learning there are significant consequences that can range from side effects of medication to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, says Dr. Helen Chen, a geriatrician at Harvard-affiliated Hebrew Rehabilitation Center.
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Urinary Symptoms In Men Linked To Low Vitamin D
Low vitamin D levels are common among adult men in the United States and are associated with an increased likelihood of lower urinary tract symptoms and moderate to severe urinary incontinence , national data show.
Of 2,387 men who participated in a cross-sectional survey, 89% had insufficient vitamin D levels and 55% had deficient vitamin D levels .
After adjusting for numerous potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 40% increased likelihood of LUTS and an 80% increased likelihood of moderate to severe UI, investigators reported online in Urology.
Among the 1,388 men with available data on LUTS and vitamin D measurements, 666 had at least one LUTS.
In addition, older age, lower education and income, and poor or fair self-reported health status were associated with an increased prevalence of LUTS. Non-Hispanic black men were significantly more likely to be vitamin D deficient than other ethnic groups, whereas non-Hispanic white men and men who identified as other had the lowest prevalence of LUTS among the ethnic groups.
The authors, led by Alayne D. Markland, DO, MSc, of the VA Medical Center in Birmingham, Ala., analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey .
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Urine Analysis In Patients
When checking indicators of infection, while evaluating urine analysis, there are several factors to consider. The presence of bacteria per high power field is the most common indicator of bacterial infection. Although some amounts of bacteria in urine may be present for any patient with symptoms, according to the definition, 5+ is considered as the standard for bacteriuria. Sometimes 2+ is also considered positive in some selective populations which are hospitalized and catheterized patients The bacterial invasion determined by general urine examination and culturing revealed that out of 75 urine specimens collected from patients complaining of signs and symptoms of UTIs, Fifty two samples were positive for bacterial infection whereas 30.66% negative. From positive cultures different bacterial type isolated, most cases were due to Escherichia coli .
Percentage distribution of bacterial isolates in patient group.
Ex Vivo Infection Of Bladder Biopsy
Bladder biopsies obtained from patients were immediately transferred to serum-free DMEM containing a low dose of gentamicin with or without E. coli CFT073 at 108 CFU/ml and incubated at 37 °C for 120 mins. Biopsies were then gently washed in PBS and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde . Fixed tissue was embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 4 m and processed for immunohistochemistry.
Phase Ii Clinical Trial Of Vitamin D3 For Reducing Recurrence Of Recurrent Lower Urinary Tract Infections
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government.Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
|First Posted : April 26, 2021Last Update Posted : July 19, 2021
- Study Details
|Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
|Drug: Vitamin D3 4000 IUDrug: Vitamin D3 2000 IUDrug: PlaceboOther: standard antibiotic therapy
Urinary tract infection is a multiple disease that ranks second only to respiratory infections in infectious diseases and is one of the most common infectious diseases among adults. After the first urinary tract infection, the probability of recurrence within half a year and within one year was as high as 24% and 70%, respectively. Urinary tract infection itself has the characteristics of easy recurrence, which is closely related to the abuse of antibiotics, the generation of bacterial resistance, and the decline of local immune function of mucosa.