Vaccines Targeting Bacterial Toxins And Proteases
The UPEC pore-forming toxin HlyA has also received attention as a potential vaccine target and was evaluated in a mouse model of pyelonephritis to assess protection against renal damage,. Vaccination with HlyA reduced the incidence of renal scaring compared with controls however, it did not protect against UPEC colonization of the kidneys. In addition, in a mouse model of UTI, vaccination with the P. mirabilis haemolysin, HpmA, did not provide protection against bacterial colonization. However, vaccination with Pta, an alkaline protease with toxic effects towards epithelial cells, displayed promising results in a mouse model of UTI, protecting against upper UTI, although bacterial burdens in the bladder remained unaffected. Thus, although haemolysins and proteases might provide effective vaccine targets for preventing upper UTIs, additional studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these enzymes as targets for vaccines.
Seek Medical Attention For Utis
It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have a UTI particularly if you think you may have a bladder or kidney infection, both of which are very serious conditions. Early treatment of urinary infection can help to prevent infection spreading to the bladder or kidneys.
Your doctor will test your urine to check which micro-organism is present. Urinary tract infections usually respond quickly and well to antibiotics.
Treatment Of E Coli Infections In Cats
Even though the majority of E. coli infections in our feline friends are easy to treat, especially when they havent gotten to a severe stage, a correct treatment plan usually calls for the last two diagnostic techniques that we have mentioned.
Once the vet finds out to which antibiotic the exact strain of E. coli thats at the root at the infection is sensitive to, they will be able to prescribe the appropriate therapy. In some cases, vets prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics and they work, but it is extremely important for you to administer the meds to your cat without missing a day out of the 10 to 14 ones recommended.
If the cat has a worsened health condition due to the infection, she might have to receive IV fluids to treat hypoglycemia or dehydration and might have to be hand-fed for a while. Kittens that develop this type of infection will have to be warmed up if they suffer from hypothermia.
As previously mentioned, most cats have an excellent chance of recovering from an E. coli infection over the span of a couple of weeks.
Giving your cats the antibiotics as per the vets recommendations is paramount. If you stop at one point and think that your cat is well again, there is a chance that the infection might recur. Not only that, but the next time around, the bacteria might be resistant to the antibiotics that you have previously used.
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The Different Parts Of The Urinary Tract And Those More Prone To Infection
The urinary system is well designed and can often keep E. coli and other types of microscopic invaders at bay. For instance, urinating usually does an excellent job of flushing out lingering bacteria from the urethra before it causes any issues. But when this defense fails, bacteria such as E. coli enters the urinary tract , multiplies, and then a urinary tract infection can develop.
While any part of the urinary tract can be impacted, most E. colicaused UTIs occur in the lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder and the urethra . A UTI that resides in the bladder is called cystitis one that resides in the urethra is called urethritis.
Phylogenetic Group And Vf Distribution Among Patient Groups And Clinical Syndromes
E. coli is commonly classified into four main phylogenetic groups namely A, B1, B2, and D as defined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing . Several studies have shown that E. coli pathogenic strains from extraintestinal infections mostly derive from group B2, and to a less extent group D . Most studies quote prevalence rates around 6365% for group B2 in pathogenic strains, and 1015% for group D . Commensal E. coli are mainly associated with phylogenetic groups A or B1, and are mainly devoid of virulence determinants . The overlapping associations of VFs and phylogeny with clinical virulence makes it difficult to understand which directly determines virulence. However, some studies in children showed that pyelonephritis isolates more often belonged to group B2, contained on average higher prevalences of individual VF genes, and consequently had higher VF scores than did cystitis or fecal isolates, suggesting that both VF repertoire and phylogenetic background play important roles in UTI pathogenesis.
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E Coli In Urine Culture What Does It Mean
When your lab assistant tells you that they have found E. coli in urine, it usually means you have a urinary tract infection and your doctor may ask for other tests to confirm what type of infection it is. Under normal circumstances, your urine in the bladder contains no bacteria or other organisms, but that’s not the case when bacteria enter your urine through the urethra. Escherichia coli or E. Coli is among the most common causative agents of UTIs. Your doctor will confirm the presence of these bacteria in your urine through a urine culture test, but they will also look for the presence of any red blood cells, while blood cells, or bacteria.
Your lab assistant may ask you to wipe clean your genital area before the test to avoid any contamination. They will then analyze your urine and if they find something specific, they will proceed with a urine culture test to confirm an infection. This test will help confirm the types of bacteria causing infection in your case this will also help identify the best medicine for the infection.
Editorial Sources And Fact
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When Urinary Tract Infections Keep Coming Back
If you are prone to recurrent UTIs, you can head them off before they take hold.
Unless you’re in the fortunate minority of women who have never had a urinary tract infection , you know the symptoms well. You might feel a frequent urgency to urinate yet pass little urine when you go. Your urine might be cloudy, blood-tinged, and strong-smelling. For 25% to 30% of women who’ve had a urinary tract infection, the infection returns within six months.
If you have repeated UTIs, you’ve experienced the toll they take on your life. However, you may take some comfort in knowing that they aren’t likely to be the result of anything you’ve done. “Recurrent UTIs aren’t due to poor hygiene or something else that women have brought on themselves. Some women are just prone to UTIs,” says infectious diseases specialist Dr. Kalpana Gupta, a lecturer in medicine at Harvard Medical School.
Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Its Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles Among Patients With Uti At Mulago Hospital Kampala Uganda
Joseph M. Kungu
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
Urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections encountered in primary health care, and it is among the most common infections with an increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents . These infections have also become the most common hospital-acquired infections, accounting for up to 35% of nosocomial infections and second cause of bacteremia in hospitalized patients. This ailment affects patients in all age groups and sexes, with females accounting for 87.5% of the cases compared with males . This is associated with the short urethral tube of women and close proximity of the anus to the urethral opening, allowing easier access of the bacteria to the urethra. It is estimated that half of all women will have recurrent episodes of acute cystitis during adult life .
The resistance patterns of community-acquired UTI have not been studied exclusively, yet knowledge regarding common uropathogens and their susceptibility patterns to drugs is key in improving prescription decisions . Treatment of patients at Mulago hospital is usually carried out empirically and regular laboratory culture and sensitivity tests of urine from UTI patients are limited .
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Sample Size Determination
2.3. Collection and Analysis of Urine Samples
2.4. Data Analysis
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What Are The Symptoms Of E Coli Infection In The Urine
What this bacterium does to your body depends to a large extent on the type of E. coli it has and what type of infection it is causing. It usually presents the following symptoms:
- Urination that burns.
- Frequent urination urges, even if there is almost no urine.
- The urine is smelly, cloudy or bloody.
- Fever or chills
- Pelvic pain in women and rectal pain in men.
- Pain in the lower back, abdomen, hips.
- Bruises and pale skin.
Urinary tract infections are not usually serious, but they can be dangerous if the bacteria make their way into the kidneys.
If left untreated, a kidney infection can cause permanent kidney damage and even deadly blood poisoning.
When Should I See A Healthcare Provider About An E Coli Infection
See your healthcare provider about an E. coli infection if:
You have diarrhea for more than three days and:
- You cant keep any fluids down.
- You have blood in your poop.
- You are feeling very tired.
- You have many bouts of vomiting.
- You have a fever higher than 102 °F.
- You are not peeing a lot.
- You are losing pink color in cheeks and inside your lower eyelids.
How Did I Get Infected With E Coli
You come into contact and swallow E. coli by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water or by touching your mouth with your hands that are contaminated with E. coli bacteria.
- Meats: Meats become contaminated with E. coli during the slaughtering process, when E. coli in animal intestines gets onto cuts of meat and especially when meat from more than one animal is ground together. If you eat undercooked meat , you can become infected with E. coli.
- Unpasteurized milk: E. coli on a cows udder and/or the milking equipment can get into the milk. Drinking contaminated raw milk can lead to an E. coli infection because it hasnt been heated to kill the bacteria.
- Unpasteurized apple cider and other unpasteurized juices.
- Soft cheeses made from raw milk.
- Fruits and veggies: Crops growing near animal farms can become contaminated when E. coli-containing animal poop combines with rainwater and the runoff enters produce fields and lands on the produce. If you dont thoroughly wash off the produce, E. coli enters your body when you eat these foods.
- E. coli in poop from both animals and humans can end up in all types of water sources including ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wells, swimming pools/kiddie pools and even in local city water supplies that have not been disinfected. If you swallow contaminated water, you could get sick.
Relationship Between Antibiotic Resistance And Virulence Or Phylogenetic Background In Upec
Previous studies show that in E. coli isolates from patients with urosepsis, resistance to antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin is negatively associated with virulence and a phylogenetic group B2, but positively associated with host compromise . There is a similar negative association between FQ resistance and VFs and group B2 . This suggests that, resistance may provide a greater fitness advantage to E. coli than traditional VFs or a group B2 background, allowing them to cause infections in compromised hosts with weakened defenses who are frequently exposed to antibiotics.
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How Can We Get Infected With This Bacterium Causes
Since E. coli is transported in the stool, not washing your hands after defecating becomes a real problem for everyone around you. As it can get to your hands , then it can reach everything else.
In the same way, coming into contact with animals is an easy way to pick up the bacteria.
All this is reduced to washing hands, after using the bathroom, after touching animals or after being near crowds .
Escherichia coli can sometimes be found in water. If an animal has gone to the bathroom near a water source, it can be found in drinking water.
Much of our exposure to E. Coli comes from food handling. Problems can arise when we do not properly clean the products, we eat food that was not stored at the right temperature, we do not cook the meat at the right temperature and we use utensils or dishes that have not been cleaned properly.
In conclusion we must handle the food with care, ensuring that the meat is well cooked, and take the time to wash the products and cooking surfaces.
How is this bacteria lodged in the urine?
People and animals usually have some E. coli in their intestines, but some strains cause infection.
The bacteria that cause the infection can enter our body in a large number of ways.
Inadequate handling of food.
If the food is prepared at home, in a restaurant or in a grocery store, mishandling and preparation can cause contamination.
The most common causes of food poisoning include:
Epidemiology And Risk Factors For E Coli Uti
Overall, UTI is more prevalent among females than males, attributable to the close proximity of the urogenital tract to the anus in females, the greater length of the male urethra, and the antibacterial activity of prostatic fluid in men . Functional, hormonal, and anatomical changes that occur during pregnancy predispose pregnant women to UTI . UTI during pregnancy can result in devastating maternal and neonatal complications, including maternal sepsis, preterm labor, and premature delivery . Thirty percent of patients with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria develop symptomatic cystitis and up to 50% develop pyelonephritis . ASB is also associated with intrauterine growth retardation and low-birth-weight infants . Up to 27% of preterm births have been associated with UTI in pregnancy .
Among bacterial infections in children, UTI ranks highly, even outnumbering bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia . About 1% of infants < 3 months old develop UTI, with more males affected than females. Proper and urgent UTI management is crucial in children as an estimated 1015% of children with UTI will develop permanent kidney damage, leading to other chronic diseases such as hypertension and renal insufficiency .
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Quality Assessment And Risk Of Bias In Individual Studies
The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies was used for assessing the risk of bias of included studies . This scale was adapted from the NOS quality assessment scale for cohort studies. The assessment was in the area of selection , comparability and outcome . This was done by GKB and JM. Studies were classified into 4 categories: very good , good , satisfactory and unsatisfactory . The complete assessment of studies is found in the supplemental file .
How Is An E Coli Infection Treated
Fortunately, most E. coli infections go away on their own. You can help yourself manage E. coli infection by drinking plenty of fluids to replace what youve lost through diarrhea and/or vomiting. Also, get as much rest as possible.
Antibiotics are usually not given for STEC O157 infection because they can make your illness worse and put you at risk for hemolytic uremic syndrome . Also, dont take any medicines to stop diarrhea , because it could keep the E. coli bacteria in your body and increase your chance of HUS.
You should start to feel better about five to seven days from the time you first developed symptoms.
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Risk Factors For Developing Utis
Some people are at greater risk than others of developing UTIs. These include:
- women sexually active women are vulnerable, in part because the urethra is only four centimetres long and bacteria have only this short distance to travel from the outside to the inside of the bladder
- people with urinary catheters such as people who are critically ill, who cant empty their own bladder
- people with diabetes changes to the immune system make a person with diabetes more vulnerable to infection
- men with prostate problems such as an enlarged prostate gland that can cause the bladder to only partially empty
- babies especially those born with physical problems of the urinary system.
Treating An Uncomplicated Uti Caused By E Coli
Treatment options vary widely for UTIs, however the conventional treatment is antibiotics, in particular fluoroquinolone. Antibiotic resistance is an issue, with multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae, mostly E. coli, being a matter of concern.
E. coli strains are resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Non-antibiotic treatments that can be applied at home include herbal medicines, reflexology, and others, but ongoing or severe infection, especially involving the kidneys, requires prompt medical attention.
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What Should I Do If I Have E Coli
In most cases, home care is all thats required to treat an E. coli infection. Drink plenty of water, get lots of rest, and keep an eye out for more severe symptoms that require a call to your doctor. If you have bloody diarrhea or fever, check with your doctor before taking over-the-counter antidiarrheal medications.