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Signs Of Urinary Tract Infection In Toddler

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What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti In A Child

Urinary Tract Infections: Dr. MacAleer, CHOC Children’s

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child.

Symptoms in babies can include:

  • Fever

Symptoms in children can include:

  • Sudden need to urinate
  • Loss of control of urine
  • Pain while urinating
  • Pain above the pubic bone
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pain in the back or side below the ribs
  • Tiredness

The symptoms of a UTI can seem like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Getting A Urine Sample From A Child

To help make sure the urine sample does not have any bacteria that may be on your or your childs skin, you will need to get a mid-stream sample. This is from the middle part of the urine flow.

  • Your child should start weeing into a toilet bowl or potty.
  • After one or two seconds, catch some of the urine directly into the container.
  • Take the container away before your child stops urinating.
  • Screw the lid on tight.

How Is It Diagnosed

If your child has symptoms of a UTI, see your pediatrician. The doctor will take a urine sample and test it for bacteria. They can collect urine in a number of ways:

  • Older children can pee into a cup .
  • Younger children who aren’t toilet trained will have a plastic bag placed over their genitals to collect the urine.
  • Children who wear diapers can have a tube inserted into their urethra and bladder to collect the sample.
  • In infants, the doctor can place a needle straight into the bladder through the stomach to get the sample.

At the lab, a technician looks at the sample under a microscope to see whether germs are in the urine. It might also be cultured — that means the lab tech places the urine in a dish to see what type of bacteria grow in it. This can help your doctor find the exact germs that caused your childâs UTI so theyâll know the right type of medicine to prescribe to kill them.

If your child has had a few UTIs, your doctor might refer you to a nephrologist and do one or more of these imaging tests to look for problems in the urinary tract:

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How Are The Infections Diagnosed

The doctor will give your child a physical exam and ask about his or her symptoms. Your child also will have lab tests, such as a urinalysis and a urine culture, to check for germs in the urine. It takes 1 to 2 days to get the results of a urine culture, so many doctors will prescribe medicine to fight the infection without waiting for the results. This is because a child’s symptoms and the urinalysis may be enough to show an infection.

After your child gets better, the doctor may have him or her tested to find out if there is a problem with the urinary tract. For example, urine might flow backward from the bladder into the kidneys. Problems like this can make a child more likely to get an infection in the bladder or kidneys.

Eating Diet & Nutrition

How Do You Know If A Baby Has A Uti

Food choices do not help prevent or treat bladder infections in children, but drinking plenty of liquids may help. Talk with a health care professional about how much liquid your child should drink, depending on his or her age, size, and other health conditions.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and other components of the National Institutes of Health conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

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When May My Child Need To Be Hospitalized For A Uti

Your child may need to be hospitalized for the following reasons:

  • If theyre a young infant or child.
  • If they have a high fever.
  • If they have back pain.
  • If theyre dehydrated .
  • If he or she is unable to tolerate oral antibiotics.
  • When there is a concern that the infection has spread to their bloodstream.

How Are Recurrent Utis Treated

The primary treatment for UTIs is usually antibiotics, but for recurrent UTIs treatment can depend on the root cause for the reoccurrence. In some instances, it could be as simple as teaching your child proper bathroom practices. In other cases, your childs doctor may prescribe continuous antibiotics for a period of time to reduce the reoccurrence.

Kids who have infections and fevers along with VUR might need surgery. But most kids don’t have serious symptoms and outgrow the condition with no lasting problems.

It is important to note that children should complete the full course of medications to prevent the infection from worsening or affecting the kidneys, Dr. Kronborg said. By completing the medication, you can increase the odds of killing the bacteria. Stopping early allows a small portion to remain which can strengthen, change and develop resistance.

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Key Points About A Uti In Children

  • A urinary tract infection is inflammation of part of the system that takes urine out of the body.
  • Most infections are caused by bacteria from the digestive tract. The most common is Escherichia coli bacteria. These normally live in the colon.
  • A UTI is not common in children younger than age 5. A UTI is much more common in girls because they have a shorter urethra.
  • A UTI is unlikely in boys of any age, unless part of the urinary tract is blocked. Uncircumcised boys are more at risk for a UTI than circumcised boys.
  • Symptoms vary by age, and can include fever, need to urinate often, pain, and crying.

Getting A Urine Sample From A Teenage Girls

How Common Are Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections? (Extended)

Teenage girls need to be especially careful when getting a mid-stream sample.

  • Your daughter should wash her hands and her genitals, and dry with a clean towel.
  • She should sit on the toilet with her legs wide apart.
  • Before weeing she should separate her labia these are the pieces of skin around her genitals.

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Why Does My Child Keep Getting A Uti

Common causes of UTIs are constipation, wiping from back to front, holding in pee, taking bubble baths or staying in a wet bathing suit for extended periods.

However, recurrent UTIs could be a sign of a malformation or malfunction of the urinary tract, such as vesicoureteral reflux . VUR occurs when the flow of urine goes the wrong direction from the bladder to the kidneys and is common among infants and children.

Your childs doctor can help rule out other conditions related to UTIs and discuss treatment options.

History And Physical Examination

Clinical signs and symptoms of a UTI depend on the age of the child. Newborns with UTI may present with jaundice, sepsis, failure to thrive, vomiting, or fever. In infants and young children, typical signs and symptoms include fever, strong-smelling urine, hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and new-onset urinary incontinence. School-aged children may have symptoms similar to adults, including dysuria, frequency, or urgency. Boys are at increased risk of UTI if younger than six months, or if younger than 12 months and uncircumcised. Girls are generally at an increased risk of UTI, particularly if younger than one year.3 Physical examination findings can be nonspecific but may include suprapubic tenderness or costovertebral angle tenderness.

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What Puts My Child At Risk Of Getting A Uti

UTIs are common. They are most common in babies under the age of 12 months but can affect children of any age.

There are some conditions which put babies and children at higher risk of UTIs:

  • constipation
  • an abnormality of the urinary tract
  • neurological conditions where the bladder doesn’t empty properly

Treatment From A Gp For Utis That Keep Coming Back

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) In Children

If your UTI comes back after treatment, you may have a urine test and be prescribed different antibiotics.

Your doctor or nurse will also offer advice on how to prevent UTIs.

If you keep getting UTIs and regularly need treatment, a GP may give you a repeat prescription for antibiotics.

If you have been through the menopause, you may be offered a vaginal cream containing oestrogen.

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Treatment For More Severe Utis

Kids with a more severe infection may need treatment in a hospital so they can get antibiotics by injection or IV .

This might happen if:

  • the child has high fever or looks very ill, or a kidney infection is likely
  • the child is younger than 6 months old
  • bacteria from the infected urinary tract may have spread to the blood
  • the child is dehydrated or is vomiting and cannot take any fluids or medicine by mouth

Kids with VUR will be watched closely by the doctor. VUR might be treated with medicines or, less commonly, surgery. Most kids outgrow mild forms of VUR, but some can develop kidney damage or kidney failure later in life.

How Can Recurrent Uti Be Treated

The most important thing is to create a good flow of urine. Encouraging drinking of plenty of fluids combined with regular peeing and avoidance of constipation are extremely important ways of preventing infections.

This might mean an operation to remove any obstruction. Sometimes, this is not enough and we will ask you to regularly insert a catheter into the childs bladder through the urethra to drain away the urine .

Catheterisation can also be done by inserting a catheter into a Mitrofanoff channel. The Mitrofanoff procedure creates a channel into the bladder through which a catheter can be inserted to empty the bladder of urine, instead of passing urine through the urethra.

Sometimes, if catheterisation is not effective at draining away and the child is still having repeated infections, we may suggest long-term antibiotics for prevention.

This preventative treatment does not work for all children and can cause problems with antibiotic resistance, making it more difficult to treat future infections effectively.

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Treatment Of Uti In Children

Your childs UTI will require prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent kidney damage. The type of bacteria causing your childs UTI and the severity of your childs infection will determine the type of antibiotic used and the length of treatment.

The most common antibiotics used for treatment of UTIs in children are:

If your child has a UTI thats diagnosed as a simple bladder infection, its likely that treatment will consist of oral antibiotics at home. However, more severe infections may require hospitalization and IV fluids or antibiotics.

Hospitalization may be necessary in cases where your child:

  • is younger than 6 months old
  • has a high fever that isnt improving
  • likely has a kidney infection, especially if the child is very ill or young
  • has a blood infection from the bacteria, as in sepsis
  • is dehydrated, vomiting, or unable to take oral medications for any other reason

Pain medication to alleviate severe discomfort during urination also may be prescribed.

If your child is receiving antibiotic treatment at home, you can help ensure a positive outcome by taking certain steps.

During your childs treatment, contact their doctor if symptoms worsen or persist for more than three days. Also call their doctor if your child has:

  • a fever higher than 101F
  • for infants, a new or persisting fever higher than 100.4F

You should also seek medical advice if your child develops new symptoms, including:

  • pain

How Can Utis Be Prevented In Kids

What to do if your child has a urinary tract infection – Online Interview

Following these tips may prevent symptoms of UTI in children.

  • Encourage your child to use the bathroom when he or she has to go, rather than holding it.
  • Teach your child how to properly wipe, front to back, after going to the bathroom.
  • Buy your potty-trained child cotton underwear, which allows the area to dry properly.
  • Dress your child in loose-fitting clothes, because tight clothes can trap moisture.
  • Make sure your child drinks enough fluids each day, preferably water. Ask your doctor how many ounces your child needs. Babies consume what they need through breastmilk or formula.

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Urinary Tract Infections In Boys

  • Urology

Urinary tract infections in boys are the result of bacteria getting into the bladder and staying there. UTIs are common in kids, especially girls and uncircumcised boys. E. Coli, responsible for over 75% of UTIs, doubles every 20 minutes in the bladder. That means if there are 100 bacteria of E. Coli in the bladder and you wait three hours to go to the bathroom, you will have over 50,000 bacteria in your bladder. The more bacteria in the bladder and the longer it stays there, the more likely you are to get a UTI.

There are many things that can be done to both treat urinary tract infections in boys and prevent them in the future.

How Common Are Utis In Children

UTI is a common infection in babies and children. It is more common in girls. It is estimated that:

  • one out of 10 girls will have had a UTI by the age of 16 years
  • one out of 30 boys will have had a UTI by the age of 16 years
  • about one out of 50 babies and young children ill have had a UTI by the age of 2 years1

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Recurrent Utis In Kids: What Every Parent Should Know

Another trip to the pediatrician? Another diagnosis of a urinary tract infection ? It seems like every time you turn around, your child has a UTI. If they keep getting recurrent UTIs, it can be frustrating and scary as a parent.

UTIs happen when bacteria from a childs skin or stool get into the urinary tract and multiply. UTIs are also very common. About 8% of girls and 2% of boys will develop a UTI by the time they are 10 years old.

It happens more commonly in girls than boys because the urethra in girls is much shorter, said Brenda Kronborg, DO, a pediatrician with Banner Children’s – Banner Health Clinic. Thus, the bacteria have a shorter distance to go and start the infection.

While UTIs are common among babies and children, recurrent UTIs can have serious complications such as scarring on the kidneys. Its important to know how to spot the warning signs and get help for your child when they need it.

Dr. Kronborg helps break down the signs and symptoms, treatment options and the ways you can help prevent future UTIs.

What Is Different About Uti In Children With Known Problems With The Urinary Tract

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) In Children

Some children are born with a problem with the urinary tract. There can be different malformations, such as posterior urethral valves, hydronephrosis and hydroureters or severe vesico-ureteric reflux.

All these malformations have one thing in common, that is, the urine flow is not normal. It can be slow due to an obstruction or narrowing of the ureter for instance. There can also be residual urine, which means that the bladder is not emptied totally when peeing, leaving some urine behind.

These problems increase the risk of developing a UTI. A UTI has more impact on children with a known problem with the urinary tract, as they have kidney problems present from birth . If this is the case with both kidneys, or the child only has one kidney, then there is a risk that he or she has impaired kidney function.

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Things You Can Do Yourself

To help ease pain:

  • takeparacetamolup to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
  • you can give childrenliquid paracetamol
  • rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day, especially during hot weather

It’s important to follow the instructions on the packet so you know how much paracetamol you or your child can take, and how often.

It may also help to avoid having sex until you feel better.

You cannot pass a UTI on to your partner, but sex may be uncomfortable.

Taking cystitis sachets or cranberry products has not been shown to help ease symptoms of UTIs.

Preventing Urinary Tract Infections

Here are some things you can do at home to help your child avoid urinary tract infections :

  • Make sure your child always drinks plenty of water throughout the day.
  • Encourage your child to urinate regularly, including before every meal or snack and before bed.
  • Get a toilet step to support your childs feet until they reach the floor. This can be especially good for girls. The foot support helps them to relax their pelvic floors and stomach muscles so they can empty their bladders completely.
  • Discourage your child from straining or trying to push urine out. This is especially important for girls.
  • Teach your child to wipe from front to back after weeing or pooing. This is especially important for girls, because it can help to prevent the spread of bacteria forward from the anus.
  • See your GP if your child has constipation or hard poo these are risk factors for UTIs.

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Prevention Of Uti In Children

Prevention of UTIs is difficult, but proper hygiene may help. Girls should be taught to wipe themselves from front to back after a bowel movement and after urinating to minimize the chance of bacteria entering the urethral opening. Avoiding frequent bubble baths, which may irritate the skin around the urethral opening of both boys and girls, may help lessen the risk of UTIs. Circumcision of boys lowers their risk of UTIs during infancy. Boys who are circumcised are infected with UTIs only 1/10th as often as boys who are not circumcised, but it is not clear whether this advantage by itself is a sufficient reason for circumcision. Regular urination and regular bowel movements may lessen the risk of UTIs.

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