What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
Your urinary tract is the system that carries liquid waste out of the body in the form of urine. It consists of the kidneys, which filter toxins out of the liquid you drink the bladder, which stores urine the urethra, which allows urine to pass out of the body and the tubes that connect all of these parts. A urinary tract infection occurs when any of these parts become infected.
Depending on the part of the body affected by the infection, the specific term for the urinary tract infection will change. Bladder infections are called cystitis, and the relatively more rare urethra infections are urethritis. Kidney infections are called pyelonephritis.
The most common UTIs are bladder infections, which occur when the bladder becomes obstructed or exposed to bacteria. Bladder infections are usually fairly mild, but the symptoms can be very uncomfortable. If left untreated, however, the infection can spread to the kidneys. A kidney infection is much more serious and can permanently damage your kidneys. If you develop symptoms consistent with a kidney infection, its important to seek aggressive medical care quickly to prevent permanent injury to your vital organs.
Glomerular Syndromes Associated With Acute/subacute Viral Infections
This focus is on individual types of glomerular lesions seen with a variety of acute and subacute viral infections including cytomegalovirus , parvovirus, EpsteinBarr virus , hantavirus, and dengue. An accurate differential diagnosis in case of GN should rule out acute or chronic viral infections. Familiarity with the main renal syndromes associated with viral diseases is essential in order to begin accurate testing and therapeutic interventions .
Although any acute viral illness can lead to an immune complexproliferative glomerulonephritis , a select group of viral syndromes can induce glomerular injury: dengue, hantavirus, and non-HIV viruses associated with collapsing FSGS .
Dengue is a worldwide infection with estimated 100 million new per year. It is classified into dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. GN in dengue results not only from immune complex deposition but also from direct viral entry into renal tissue . Treatment remains supportive in all categories of dengue.
Hantaviruses are RNA viruses of the Bunyaviridae family which are associated with two major syndromes: hanta pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, characterized by diffuse endothelial cell injury as a consequence of direct viral infection. Similar to dengue, no specific therapy is available for hantavirus infection but preventive strategies with widespread vaccination are undergoing clinical trials .
When To See A Doctor For Urethritis
For temporary, mild urethritis that comes from using a new soap or lotion, you may not need to see your health-care provider. But other cases of urethritis may need to be checked.
- If you are experiencing pain with urination following a medical procedure, contact your physician to discuss the need for evaluation or treatment. The pain may be an expected side effect of the procedure, or it may signify the beginning of an infection.
- All other cases of burning with urination require medical attention within 24 hours.
Urethritis is probably not an emergency, but you will want to get relief promptly. If you are experiencing other signs of illness, such as fever, nausea, vomiting, back, and abdominal pain, you may need emergency care. These symptoms could mean the infection has moved beyond the urethra. These potentially serious conditions require immediate evaluation by your doctor or in an emergency department.
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What You Can Do To Relieve Itching In Kidney Disease
Apart from asking why kidney disease causes itching, the priority is finding relief for the problem. If you experience itching and have kidney disease, it is important to tell your doctor or the team in the dialysis unit. It may mean you have too much urea in your blood, and the team may need to review your medication and dialysis regime. Here are a few things you can do to try to reduce itching:
- Wear loose clothing made with natural fibers.
- Avoid perfumes, aftershaves, and use unscented soaps.
- Pat instead of rub skin after a shower.
- Avoid arid environments.
Sometimes you may need help from your doctor to manage the symptoms. They can prescribe an antihistamine or medication such as Gabapentin which reduces itching by interacting with nerve function. Both these types of drugs can make you sleepy, so you need to be monitored carefully. A dermatologist is another source of help and can advise on treatment options, such as using creams.
Remember to seek advice for any symptoms that develop with your kidney disease from the medical team treating you.
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How Can I Tell The Difference
Urinary tract infections and yeast infections can both cause itching and discomfort. But there are some important differences between the two that will help you answer the question, Do I have thrush or UTI?, such as:
The appearance of your urine can tell quite a bit about whats going on inside your body. In the case of a UTI, your urine may be cloudy or have a bad odour. It may also appear pink or red if blood is present in the urine. On the other hand, vaginal discharge from thrush will more than likely be odourless and have a texture that looks similar to cottage cheese.
Thrush typically causes very painful urination without any other symptoms, while a UTI can cause pain during urination as well as nausea/vomiting and lower abdominal pain .
Unlike thrush, UTI can cause bacteria to get into the bloodstream and result in more serious health issues.
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Estrogen A New Weapon Against Urinary Tract Infection In Menopause
Estrogen stimulates the production of the bodys own antibiotic and strengthens the cells in the urinary tract, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet. The results, which are published in the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine, show that estrogen supplements may help menopausal women to ward off recurrent urinary tract infections.
Urinary tract infections are among the most common diseases, affecting over half of all women at some point in life and repeatedly in 25 percent of these. Menopausal women have an increased risk of recurrent urinary tract infections, which has been associated with low estrogen levels.
Infecting bacteria first come in contact with the inside of the urinary bladder. The bladder lumen is covered with epithelial cells, acting as a fence protecting the vulnerable tissue as well as producing antimicrobial peptides the bodys self-made antibiotic. These peptides act as rapid front line soldiers fighting infecting microorganisms. By the early action of the antimicrobial peptides, the number of bacteria can be reduced before they have a chance to multiply. In the post-menopausal woman, however, the epithelium is fragile and often damaged with occasional gaps between cells, which in turn affect the ability to resist infection.
This research has been funded through grants from the Swedish Research Council, ALF and the Swedish Cancer Foundation, amongst others.
Summary Of The Evidence
Following this review, it is evident that all of the studies which have explored the association between suspected UTI and confusion are methodologically flawed, due to poor case definition for UTI or confusion, or inadequate control of confounding factors introducing significant bias. Subsequently, no accurate conclusions about the association between UTI and confusion can be drawn. One study of acceptable quality shows an association between confusion and bacteriuria. However, this sample of patients in whom they tested bacteriuria and pyuria were patients already suspected of having a UTI, introducing a bias into their calculation . In summary, none of the 22 publications had sufficient methodological quality to enable valid conclusions.
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Urinalysis And Bacterial Titers
Urine specimens from infected mice were collected at 0 to 14 days postinfection and serially diluted in PBS 5 l of each dilution was spotted onto LB plates six times as described previously . Bacterial titers were calculated as CFU/ml of urine. Urine sediments were obtained by cyto-centrifuging 50 l of a 1:5 dilution of the urine onto poly-l-lysine-coated glass slides, which were then stained for inflammatory scoring as described previously .
What Should I Do If I Have Symptoms Of Urethritis
- If you suspect that you have urethritis then contact your local genitourinary clinic â find one from the Family Planning Associationâs âFind a Clinicâ serviceâ or see your GP.
- You may be asked to have tests for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis, as people with inflammation of the urethra sometimes have these conditions as well.
- Men who have sex with men may also need to have swabs taken from the back of the throat and back passage .
- The GUM clinic will protect your confidentiality but, if they confirm you have an infection, they may want to contact anyone you had sex with up to three months before you were diagnosed. This is called âcontact tracingâ.
- Medicines called antibiotics will usually clear an infection. The antibiotic prescribed depends on the cause. Make sure you complete the course.
- If your urethritis is due to an infection such as gonorrhoea it is vital that you have another test after you have been treated to make sure the infection has been cured. This will usually be done seven days after treatment.
- Tell your sexual partner to see their doctor or go to a GUM clinic, even if they have no symptoms. Many women with sexually transmitted infections do not have symptoms.
- Donât have sex until you and your sexual partner have completed tests and treatment. You should wait seven days after you have had your treatment course to avoid passing on the infection: your doctor will advise.
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Cognitive Impairment And Dementia
Cognitive impairment is defined as a new deficit in two or more areas of cognitive function. In milder forms, cognitive impairment may not interfere with daily functioning. In contrast, dementia is characterised by persistent cognitive decline and behavioural disturbance that is severe enough to interfere with independence and daily functioning. CKD is an independent risk factor for progressive cognitive impairment and dementia. Dementia presents an important clinical complication as it can result in poor health literacy, medical adherence and is a powerful predictor of mortality in dialysis patients., While cognitive impairment is recognised as a common complication of CKD, it remains poorly identified. The reported prevalence of cognitive impairment in dialysis is estimated at between 30% and 60% while less than 5% of patients have clinically documented histories of cognitive impairment.
Evidence suggests that both the prevalence and progression of cognitive impairment are inversely associated with the level of kidney function. Several large population-based studies have demonstrated an increased risk of cognitive decline in the presence of moderate CKD including an 11% increased prevalence of cognitive impairment per 10mL/min/1.73m2 decrease in eGFR.
Diagnosis and management
Can Hpv Be Prevented
A vaccine can keep you from getting it. Itâs best if youâre vaccinated before youâre sexually active so your immune system can be prepared to fight it off. The CDC recommends that girls and boys get vaccinated at age 11 or 12. Older kids should get the HPV vaccine up to age 26. If youâre older, are already having sex, and have gotten one type of HPV, the vaccine can protect you against other types. Adults through age 45 may also get the vaccine, but it may provide less benefit because of prior exposure to HPV in this age group. Pregnant women shouldnât get the vaccine, however.
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Other Ways To Prevent Cystitis Coming Back
If you keep getting cystitis, there is some evidence you may find it helpful to take:
- D-mannose a sugar you can buy as a powder or tablets to take every day
- cranberry products available as juice, tablets or capsules to take every day
Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar. If you’re taking warfarin, you should avoid cranberry products.
Page last reviewed: 11 February 2022 Next review due: 11 February 2025
Things You Can Try Yourself
If you have mild symptoms of cystitis, it can help to:
- take paracetamol up to 4 times a day to reduce pain
- give children liquid paracetamol follow the instructions on the bottle
- drink plenty of water
- avoid drinks that may irritate your bladder, like fruit juices, coffee and alcohol
Some people take cystitis sachets or cranberry drinks and products every day to prevent cystitis from happening, which might help. However, theres no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat cystitis if the infection has already started.
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What Is A Bladder Infection
A bladder infection is a type of urinary tract infection, but not all UTIs are bladder infections. Bladder infections are the most common type of UTIs. A bladder infection may also be called cystitis and it is usually caused by bacteria.
Symptoms of a UTI can differ depending on what part of the urinary tract is infected. A bladder infection usually causes symptoms such as:
- Burning when urinating
- The feeling that you need to pee frequently, but when you go to the toilet very little urine comes out
- Pain in the pelvic area just above the pubic bone.
Bladder infections are usually considered simple UTIs and treatment is usually with antibiotics for three to five days. Symptoms usually resolve in a couple of days.
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Causes Of A Uti Vs A Yeast Infection
A urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria that may be in the area, and it spreads up towards the bladder, Dr. Shepherd says.
The most common bacteria that causes UTIs is E. coli, according to Rena Malik, MD, a urologist based in Baltimore and Columbia. UTIs are commonly caused by bacteria that’s spread during intercourse, so make sure you use the bathroom after sex.
Concentrated urine can also cause the infection, according to Dr. Shepherd, so she recommends diluting your urine by drinking more water.
A yeast infection, on the other hand, is caused by an unbalance of yeast in the body, which can be a result of multiple factors. The overgrowth of a certain type of yeast called Candida can result in an infection that causes burning, itching, redness, and irregular discharge, per the Cleveland Clinic. But diet and personal hygiene can also play a role.
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What A Urinary Tract Infection Is Not
Additionally, certain diseases and disorders of the urinary tract may mimic the symptoms of a UTI, but they are not treated in the same way and do not have the same underlying causes. For example, an enlarged prostate may cause straining and burning with urination, and certain types of kidney disease may mimic the symptoms of pyelonephritis. These conditions have different root causes than UTIs, however, and require different treatment.
This is one reason why its important to have a doctor check for bacteria in a patients urine whenever the patient presents with UTI symptoms. The symptoms may be caused by a different underlying concern, or that underlying medical condition may cause the UTI as a secondary infection. Until the root cause is discovered and treated, chronic urinary tract infections may occur.
Can A Urinary Tract Infection Affect The Brain
Home Health Care Specialists Understand Urinary Tract Infections. Infections, including urinary tract infections, can damage nerves and brain cells. That can lead to temporary mental disorientation. The disorientation can be mistaken for the onset of dementia by those unfamiliar with the interaction between it and UTIs
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How Does Hpv Affect Pregnancy
HPV does not affect your chances of getting pregnant, but it may cause problems during pregnancy.
Some possible problems during pregnancy include:
- Cervical cell changes. Continue to get regular cervical cancer screening during and after pregnancy to help your doctor find any changes.
- Genital warts that bleed and grow. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause any genital warts that you had before getting pregnant or that you get during pregnancy to bleed and grow .
- Cesarean section. If genital warts block the birth canal, you may need to have a cesarean section .
- Health problems in the baby. A woman with genital HPV can very rarely pass it on to her baby. Babies and children may develop growths in their airways from HPV. This rare but potentially serious condition is called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
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Uti Symptoms In Seniors: What To Watch Out For
For seniors, many of the symptoms of a urinary tract infection are linked to changes in behavior, and they may include:
- Social withdrawal
Many of these atypical UTI symptoms mimic the signs of dementia, and the initial reaction to a senior acting in this way may be fear of developing or worsening dementia or Alzheimers. The first thing to do is to find out if the elderly individual has a UTI, since a UTI can exacerbate symptoms of dementia or cause these symptoms in an elderly individual who has not developed dementia.
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Gallstone And Urine Color
As we mentioned before, uncomplicated gallstones dont change the urine color.
However, gallstones may slip into the narrow canal connecting the gallbladder to the duodenum . Some may pass into the duodenum, while others may get stuck inside the CBD and cause its obstruction.
The obstruction of the common bile duct will prevent bile secretion from the liver to the gut tract .
The obstruction of bile secretion from the liver will increase bilirubin levels in the blood, which results in:
- Darker color of your urine
- Yellowish discoloration of the skin.
- Yellowish discoloration of your eye whites.
- Triggering of biliary pain .
- Infection of the biliary system .
Changes in urine color is the only urinary symptoms associated with complicated gallstones. Gallstones dont lead to other urinary symptoms such as burning urine or increased urine frequency.
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