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Main Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection

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How Common Are Urinary Tract Infections

Acute pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection) – causes, symptoms & pathology

Urinary tract infections are very common, occurring in 1 out of 5 women sometime in their lifetime. Though UTIs are common in women, they can also happen to men, older adults and children. One to 2% of children develop urinary tract infections. Each year, 8 million to 10 million visits to doctors are for urinary tract infections.

Living With Urinary Tract Infections

If you have 3 or more urinary tract infections each year, your doctor may want you to begin a preventive antibiotic program. A small dose of an antibiotic taken every day helps to reduce the number of infections. If sexual intercourse seems to cause infections for you, your doctor many suggest taking the antibiotic after intercourse.

Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti

Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:

  • Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
  • Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.

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What Can Cause Frequent Urinary Tract Infection

Certain women are predisposed to having frequent episodes of urinary tract infection. Even if they take all the care, avoiding staying more than 3 hours without drinking liquids, cleaning themselves properly and keeping the genital region always clean and dry, they can have more than 6 urinary infections in the same year.

In addition, diabetic and menopausal women are also more at risk of having a urinary tract infection, so adopting a low-carb diet is also an excellent strategy to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in the urinary tract, thus preventing the recurrence of urinary tract infection. Here are some tips on how to eat daily to avoid infections:

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Utis And Taking Baths Or Swimming

Urinary Tract Infections

While there is no formal research recognizing taking a bath or swimming as risk factors, e. coli or other bacteria that washed off from the skin or urogenital area, or already in the water could move to the urinary tract when doing so. This could be why many women report UTIs following swimming or bathing. Many women who have noticed this pattern avoid taking baths because of it. In addition, following swimming, going a long period of time in a wet or damp bathing suit without letting the area breath and dry and without showering provides more opportunity and time for bacteria to travel to the urinary tract and establish an infection.

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Organs Of The Urinary Tract

The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters , bladder, and urethra. These organs may be injured by blunt force or by penetrating force . Injuries may also occur unintentionally during surgery.

UTIs are usually classified as upper or lower according to where they occur along the urinary tract, although it is sometimes difficult or impossible for doctors to make such a determination:

Some doctors also consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower UTIs. In paired organs , infection can occur in one or both organs. UTIs can occur in children Urinary Tract Infection in Children A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder , the kidneys , or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger… read more as well as in adults.

Common Causes And Risk Factors

While a UTI can occur in any part of your urinary system , most UTIs affect the bladder and urethra .Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis are among the bacteria most commonly linked to UTIs.


Because of certain anatomical factors, women face a much higher risk of UTIs . This is because women have a shorter urethra, which allows bacteria to reach and infect the bladder far more easily. Whats more, the opening to the urethra in women is significantly closer to the rectum, where UTI-causing bacteria are known to dwell.


Due to pregnancy-related changes in the urinary tract, UTIs may also be more common during pregnancy .

Its said that the increased size and weight of the uterus may prevent the complete drainage of urine from the bladder, which can make pregnant women more UTI-prone.


Women who have gone through menopause may also have a greater risk of urinary tract infections, possibly due to hormonal changes that might affect the beneficial bacteria responsible for fighting off harmful microorganisms in the urinary tract.

Health Conditions

Several chronic health problems may increase UTI risk as well. These include conditions associated with impaired immune response , which can weaken your bodys ability to fend off bacteria. Age-related issues like Alzheimers disease may also factor into UTI risk, since they may interfere with personal hygiene.

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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection In Men

Urinary tract infections involve the parts of the body the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra that produce urine and carry it out of the body. Urinary tract infections often are classified into two types based on their location in the urinary tract:

  • Lower tract infections These include cystitis and urethritis . Lower urinary tract infections commonly are caused by intestinal bacteria, which enter and contaminate the urinary tract from below, usually by spreading from the skin to the urethra and then to the bladder. Urethritis also may be caused by microorganisms that are transmitted through sexual contact, including gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Another form of male urinary infection is prostatitis which is an inflammation of the prostate.
  • Upper tract infections These involve the ureters and kidneys and include pyelonephritis . Upper tract infections often occur because bacteria have traveled upward in the urinary tract from the bladder to the kidney or because bacteria carried in the bloodstream have collected in the kidney.

Risk Of Recurrent Utis

Urinary Frequency, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

The experts estimate that 40% of all women who develop a UTI will go on to have at least one more infection in the next six months. In other words, recurrent UTIs are quite common. However, if you have more than two UTIs in six months, or more than three within a year, its important to come in for an appointment so we can help you find ways to prevent ongoing infections.

During an exam, well determine if you have an underlying condition that increases your risk for recurrent UTIs and treat that condition. For example, kidney or bladder stones and an abnormally shaped urinary tract can increase your risk for infections.

Postmenopausal women are also susceptible to UTIs because the loss of estrogen affects tissues in the urethra, making them thin, weak, and less elastic changes that make it easier for bacteria to invade.

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Condom Use During Sex

Non-lubricated latex condoms may increase friction and irritate the skin during sexual intercourse. This may increase the risk of a UTI.

But there are many reasons to use condoms. Theyre important for reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections and preventing unwanted pregnancy.

To help prevent friction and skin irritation from condoms, be sure to use enough water-based lubricant during sex.

Avoid using condoms coated with spermicide.

How Do You Prevent Utis

Some ways to prevent UTIs include:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water.
  • Do not hold your urine for a long time.
  • Empty your bladder after having sex.
  • Take showers instead of baths.
  • Minimize douching, spray, or powder in the genital area to avoid irritation in the urethra.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing and dress children in loose-fitting clothing.
  • Change the birth control method if it promotes bacterial growth in the urethra.
  • Teach girls to wipe from the front to back while potty training.
  • Use appropriate lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if your partner is a little dry.
  • Uncircumcised men should wash their foreskin regularly. Teach an uncircumcised boy to wash his foreskin appropriately.

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Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection

Patients with urinary tract infections often have a burning sensation during urination. This is typically accompanied by an intense urge to urinate that wont go away, along with frequent trips to the bathroom which only result in a small amount of urine being passed. Urine may appear cloudy or have blood mixed in, giving it a pink to brownish color. Sufferers of a urinary tract infection may exhibit flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and body chills.

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Can Pelvic Pain Be Prevented

Pin on Pathophysiology Test 3

Pelvic pain canât always be prevented. However, incorporating these recommendations into your daily life can help reduce your risk:

  • Donât overuse. Limit activities that require you to stand or walk for long periods of time.
  • Eat more fiber. This is particularly helpful if your pelvic pain is due to diverticulitis.
  • Exercise regularly. Staying physically active helps keep your joints and muscles in good condition.
  • Stretch your muscles. Warm up before exercising to help reduce the risk of pelvic pain.
  • Visit your healthcare provider regularly. Routine examinations can help your medical team detect issues early on before they worsen.

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Does Cranberry Juice Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

Many people say that cranberry juice can help treat, or even prevent, a UTI. Researchers are currently looking into the topic, but havent found a definitive answer yet. Healthcare providers recommend drinking lots of fluids if you have, or have a history of getting, a UTI. Adding a glass of unsweetened cranberry juice to your diet isnt a proven way to prevent a UTI, but it typically wont hurt you either.

How Long Will The Effects Last

For most UTIs, the symptoms go away within 24 hours after you begin treatment. Take all of the medicine your healthcare provider prescribes, even after the symptoms go away. If you stop taking your medicine before the scheduled end of treatment, the infection may come back.

Without treatment, the infection can last a long time. If it is not treated, the infection can permanently damage the bladder and kidneys, or it may spread to the blood. If the infection spreads to the blood, it can be fatal.

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What Are The Treatment Options For Uti

Urine alkalizer and antibiotics are the first choices for treating urinary tract infections .

The physician chooses antibiotics to treat your UTI based on:

  • Effectiveness of the antibiotic toward infecting bacteria.
  • The severity of the infection.
  • Your age group.
  • Antibiotic resistance.

Some of the antibiotics used to treat UTIs include:

  • Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs
  • Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic many organisms may show resistance to this type of antibiotic
  • Fluoroquinolones avoid giving them to pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Tetracyclines are used for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections never use them to treat pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Aminoglycosides are usually used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe UTIs
  • Macrolides are used more often to treat some urinary problems caused by sexually transmitted diseases
  • Fosfomycin , a synthetic phosphonic acid derivative, is used for acute cystitis but not in complicated UTIs

Apart from antibiotics, cranberry juice is known to show improvement in UTIs however, monitor for the following signs if you are drinking cranberry juice to treat UTIs:

Why Do Women Get Utis More Often Than Men

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The main reason that urinary tract infections are more common in women is their anatomy. A womans urethra is much shorter than a mans, making it much easier for E. coli and other bacteria to reach the bladder in women. In other words, bacteria dont have to travel as far to reach in the bladder in women.

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When Urinary Tract Infections Keep Coming Back

If you are prone to recurrent UTIs, you can head them off before they take hold.

Unless you’re in the fortunate minority of women who have never had a urinary tract infection , you know the symptoms well. You might feel a frequent urgency to urinate yet pass little urine when you go. Your urine might be cloudy, blood-tinged, and strong-smelling. For 25% to 30% of women who’ve had a urinary tract infection, the infection returns within six months.

If you have repeated UTIs, you’ve experienced the toll they take on your life. However, you may take some comfort in knowing that they aren’t likely to be the result of anything you’ve done. “Recurrent UTIs aren’t due to poor hygiene or something else that women have brought on themselves. Some women are just prone to UTIs,” says infectious diseases specialist Dr. Kalpana Gupta, a lecturer in medicine at Harvard Medical School.

How To Feel Better

If your healthcare professional prescribes you antibiotics:

  • Take antibiotics exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
  • Do not share your antibiotics with others.
  • Do not save antibiotics for later. Talk to your healthcare professional about safely discarding leftover antibiotics.

Drink plenty of water or other fluids. Your healthcare professional might also recommend medicine to help lessen the pain or discomfort. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your antibiotics.

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What Happens If Urinary Tract Infection Untreated

The main danger associated with untreated UTIs is that the infection may spread from the bladder to one or both kidneys. When bacteria attack the kidneys, they can cause damage that will permanently reduce kidney function. In people who already have kidney problems, this can raise the risk of kidney failure.

How Does A Woman Get A Urinary Tract Infection

Chronic Urinary Tract Infection

How Does a Woman Get a Urinary Tract Infection? Frankly speaking, there are various causes of UTI in women, but we will discuss the fundamental causes.

The risk of urinary tract infection in women is greater than in men. Why are women more vulnerable to UTI? There are various causes of urinary tract infections. However, how does a woman get a urinary tract infection? The first aspect to point out is that women have shorter urethras in comparison with men. This easily allows bacterial transformation into the bladder.

One should note here that bacteria may spread through sexual intercourse. Spermicides and contraceptive diagrams may change the environment around the urethra of women. There are also several causes that make women more vulnerable to UTI. In this article, well discuss some causes of UTI in women.

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Whats The Difference Between A Urinary Tract Infection And Bladder Infection

A urinary tract infection is a more general type of infection. There are many parts of your urinary tract. A UTI is a term for an infection that takes place throughout the urinary tract. A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is a specific infection. In this infection, bacteria makes its way into the bladder and causes inflammation.

Not all urinary tract infections become bladder infections. Preventing the spread of the infection is one of the most important reasons to treat a UTI quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can spread not only to the bladder, but also into your kidneys, which is a more complicated type of infection than a UTI.

Utis And Catheter Use

Catheter use is a known and well-established risk factor for UTIs. Bacteria can be introduced into the urethra during insertion of the catheter either in two ways: 1) if the catheter was not sterile and there are bacteria on the catheter itself or 2) if bacteria on the surrounding area or opening of the urethra attach to the catheter during insertion. For indwelling catheters, or catheters that remain in place for an extended period of time, the catheter itself becomes a surface for bacteria to adhere to and create protective biofilms on. Recurrent UTIs are a major issue for those using single-use or indwelling catheters. It is also much more common to see infections caused by bacteria other than e. coli.

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Drink Little Water During The Day

In the same way that holding the pee for a long time can facilitate the development of fungi and bacteria in the urethra and bladder, drinking little water during the day can also have the same effect. This happens because the body stops producing enough urine to use the toilet several times during the day, allowing the microorganisms that would be eliminated in the urine to continue ascending to the bladder.

Thus, it is advised to drink at least about 2 liters of water a day to keep the urinary system healthy.

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