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Urinary Tract Infection In Girls

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Current & Future Developments

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There is an urgent need to develop non-invasive methods and devices for urine collection that are relatively free from contamination in non-toilet trained children. Automated urine analyzers have been developed in the screening of urine samples to determine the need for urine culture . SediMAX is an automated walk-away analyzer which uses digital imaging and an automatic image module to detect, count, and classify urine particles and reports quantitative results . SediMAX has a false negative rate of 2.4% and a positive rate of 27.6%. By employing the automated urine analyzer SediMAX, 54% of the investigated samples could have avoided urine culture. Sysmex UF-1000i is another urine particle analyzer which uses flow cytometer to determine cell counts and incorporates bacteria morphology distinction . The analyzer has a negative predictive value of 97 and only 1.17% diagnostic error. The diagnostic error can be reduced to 0.4% when contaminated samples are excluded.

YKL-40, also referred to as Chitinase-3-Like-1 or cartilage glycoprotein-39 is another novel useful urinary biomarker . Novel urinary biomarkers useful in diagnosing acute renal injury and predicting subsequent renal scarring include Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and angiotensiogen . Further studies are warranted to investigate the pathophysiological role of these biomarkers, ways to improve their sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness analysis of these biomarkers in the diagnosis of UTI.

What If The Infection Does Not Clear Up With Treatment

Most infections clear up with treatment. However, if an infection does not clear up, or if you have repeated infections, you may be given some special tests such as:

  • a type of x-ray called an intravenous pyleogram , which involves injecting a dye into a vein and taking pictures of your kidney and bladder

  • an ultrasound exam, which gives a picture of your kidneys and bladder using sound waves

  • a cytoscopic exam, which uses a hollow tube with special lenses to look inside the bladder.

What Causes A Bladder Infection

Most often a bladder infection is caused by bacteria that are normally found in the bowel. The bladder has several systems to prevent infection. For example, urinating most often flushes out bacteria before it reaches the bladder. Sometimes, your childs body cant fight the bacteria and the bacteria cause an infection. Certain health conditions can put children at risk for bladder infections.

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Sex May Cause Utis But Its Not The Only Culprit

But there are other pre-existing conditions, activities, and products that can lead to a UTI. Some of the most common causes include:

  • Drinking enough water, especially during hot summer months, can make the difference between flushing out the bacteria that can cause a UTI or not.
  • If you hold your urine for 6 hours or more, you could be putting yourself at greater risk for bacteria overgrowing in the bladder.
  • Constipation or Diarrhea Its often difficult to empty your bladder completely when youre constipated, which means bacteria have time to grow and cause an infection. Conversely, bacteria from loose stool thats excreted can also easily make its way into your urethra.
  • Because they can block your urinary tract and hold urine in, kidney stones give bacteria time to grow and can lead to a UTI.
  • For some people with uncontrolled diabetes, the bladder doesnt empty as well as it should and can become a breeding ground for bacteria. In addition, high blood glucose levels can increase the odds of a UTI.
  • Since bacteria are more prone to grow in moist environments, its important to make sure you change your pad or tampon frequently when you have your period.

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Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented Or Avoided

Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms Women

There are many lifestyle choices that can help you prevent UTIs. These are some of the things you can do to protect yourself from them:

  • Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. For some people, drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. However, if youre taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor may need to adjust your warfarin dose or you may need to have more frequent blood tests.
  • Dont hold your urine. Urinate when you feel like you need to. Some children dont go to the bathroom often enough. If your child does this, teach him or her to go to the bathroom several times each day.
  • Wipe from front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly.
  • Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria.
  • Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if youre a little dry.
  • If you get urinary tract infections often, you may want to avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method. Ask your doctor about other birth control choices.
  • Avoid taking or giving your child bubble baths.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing , and dress your child in loose-fitting clothing.
  • If you are uncircumcised, wash the foreskin regularly. If you have an uncircumcised boy, teach him how to wash his foreskin.

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Treatment From A Gp For Utis That Keep Coming Back

If your UTI comes back after treatment, or you have 2 UTIs in 6 months, a GP may:

  • prescribe a different antibiotic or prescribe a low-dose antibiotic to take for up to 6 months
  • prescribe a vaginal cream containing oestrogen, if you have gone through the menopause
  • refer you to a specialist for further tests and treatments

In some people, antibiotics do not work or urine tests do not pick up an infection, even though you have UTI symptoms.

This may mean you have a long-term UTI that is not picked up by current urine tests. Ask the GP for a referral to a specialist for further tests and treatments.

Long-term UTIs are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer in people aged 60 and over.

How Are Utis Diagnosed In Children

A urine sample is needed to check if your child has a UTI. Your childs doctor or nurse will guide you on how to do this.

Once collected, your childs urine sample is usually first tested by dipping a special paper strip into the urine to check for a colour change that can indicate an infection. The doctor may also send the urine sample to a laboratory to check which bacteria are causing the infection and which antibiotic will be most effective against your childs UTI. These results may take up to 48 hours to return. Sometimes your child will need an ultrasound to check for any problems with the bladder or kidneys.

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Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection In Teens

Image: Shutterstock

The following symptoms are seen in urinary tract infections .

  • Pain in the lower ribs, on the sides, or back
  • Cloudy or milky urine with a foul smell
  • Some chronic diseases may also cause dark-colored or cloudy urine with a foul smell. Urinalysis and urine culture may help diagnose these symptoms accurately.

    Im Pregnant How Will A Uti Affect My Baby

    Urinary Tract Infections, Animation.

    If you have a UTI and it isnt treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. Fortunately, asymptomatic bacteriuria and bladder infections are usually found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and properly, it wont hurt your baby.

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    Things You Can Do Yourself

    To help ease symptoms of a urinary tract infection :

    • takeparacetamolup to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
    • you can give childrenliquid paracetamol
    • rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day
    • avoid having sex

    Some people take cystitis sachets or cranberry drinks and products every day to prevent UTIs from happening, which may help. But there’s no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat a UTI if the infection has already started.

    How Is A Uti Treated In A Child

    Treatment will depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include:

    • Antibiotic medicine
    • A heating pad or medicines to relieve pain
    • Drinking plenty of water

    Your child’s healthcare provider may want to see your child back again a few days after treatment starts to see how treatment is working.

    Talk with your childs healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all treatments.

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    Treatment For Urinary Tract Infection In Teens

    Antibiotic treatment is required to cure urinary tract infection in most cases. Your teens doctor may choose the type of antibiotic depending on the type of bacteria and your teens health condition.

    Some may require pain medications to manage the burning sensation due to UTI. However, most teens may have pain relievers after initial doses of antibiotics.

    Treatment for one or three days may be enough to treat minor infections. Simple or minor urinary tract infections are treated with the following medications .

    • Bactrim or Septra

    More potent antibiotics are prescribed for complicated UTIs or pyelonephritis . Fluoroquinolones are usually prescribed for severe infections when the benefits outweigh the risks of complicated UTIs . The commonly prescribed fluoroquinolones are :

    Image: Shutterstock

    Frequent infections may require long-term treatment, and your teen may have to take single-dose antibiotic therapy if UTI is associated with sexual activity. You may have to discuss with the doctor for the best treatment method, depending on the cause of infection.

    Most teens get well in a few days of oral antibiotic treatment. However, your teen has to complete the prescribed course of antibiotic treatment to avoid future infections, even if they do not have any symptoms. Your teen may require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics treatment in the case of severe UTI.

    How Is A Uti Diagnosed

    Urinary tract infections in women

    To find out whether you have a UTI, your doctor or nurse will test a clean sample of your urine. This means you will first wipe your genital area with a special wipe. Then you will collect your urine in midstream in a cup. Your doctor or nurse may then test your urine for bacteria to see whether you have a UTI, which can take a few days.

    If you have had a UTI before, your doctor may order more tests to rule out other problems. These tests may include:

    • A cystogram. This is a special type of x-ray of your urinary tract. These x-rays can show any problems, including swelling or kidney stones.
    • A cystoscopic exam. The cystoscope is a small tube the doctor puts into the urethra to see inside of the urethra and bladder for any problems.

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    Urinary Tract Infections In Women

    UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.

    In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.

    In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.

    During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.

    Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:

    • use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
    • have had a new sexual partner in the last year
    • had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
    • have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
    • suffer from constipation

    What Is The Treatment For A Uti

    Antibiotics are the main treatment for UTIs. Treatment is usually for 3 to 7 days. This depends on several factors, including how unwell your child is and whether they have underlying kidney problems.

    Encouraging your child to drink more fluid may help. You can give pain relief if your child is in discomfort. You must follow the dosage instructions on the bottle. It is dangerous to give more than the recommended dose.

    The following babies and children with a UTI usually need to go to hospital for intravenous antibiotics :

    • young babies under 3 months of age
    • children who are very unwell

    Your child’s symptoms should start to improve after 48 hours of antibiotic treatment.

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    Diagnosing Urinary Tract Infections In Children

    Urinary tract infections in children can usually be diagnosed by your GP. They’ll carry out a physical examination, ask about your child’s symptoms, and request a urine sample.

    You may be asked to collect the urine sample yourself, or a doctor or nurse at your GP surgery may help you.

    These tests help your GP identify what’s causing the infection and determine whether it’s in the lower or upper part of the urinary tract.

    If your child is less than three months old, your GP may refer you straight to hospital to see a specialist in caring for children without asking for a urine sample.

    What Is A Urinary Tract Infection In Children

    Mayo Clinic Minute: Treating Urinary Tract Infections

    A UTI is when bacteria gets into your urine and travels up to your bladder. As many as 8 in 100 of girls and 2 in 100 of boys will get UTIs. Young children have a greater risk of kidney damage linked to UTI than older children or adults.

    How Does the Urinary Tract Work?

    The urinary tract is the organs in your body that make, store, and get rid of urine, one of the waste products of your body. Urine is made in the kidneys and travels down to the bladder through the ureters . The kidneys make about 1½ to 2 quarts of urine a day in an adult, and less in children, depending on their age. In children, the bladder can hold 1 to 1½ ounces of urine for each year of age. For example, a 4-year-old childs bladder can hold 4 to 6 ouncesa little less than a cup.

    The kidneys also balance the levels of many chemicals in the body and check the blood’s acidity. Certain hormones are also made in the kidneys. These hormones help control blood pressure, boost red blood cell production and help make strong bones.

    Normal urine has no bacteria in it, and the one-way flow helps prevent infections. Still, bacteria may get into the urine through the urethra and travel up into the bladder.

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    Prognosis For Uti In Children

    Properly managed children rarely progress to renal failure unless they have uncorrectable urinary tract abnormalities. However, repeated infection, particularly in the presence of VUR, is thought to cause renal scarring, which may lead to hypertension and end-stage renal disease. In children with high-grade VUR, long-term scarring is detected at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than in children with low-grade VUR and at an 8- to 10-fold greater rate than in children without VUR. The risk of scarring after recurrent UTI is as high as 25%, or 10- to 15-fold greater than that in children with only 1 febrile UTI however, few children will have recurrent febrile UTI.

    How To Cure A Bladder Or Kidney Infection
      Treatment Antibiotics for kidney infections. Antibiotics are the first line of treatment for kidney infections. Which drugs you use and for how long depend on your health and the bacteria found in your urine tests. Usually, the signs and symptoms of a kidney â¦

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    How Is It Diagnosed

    If your child has symptoms of a UTI, see your pediatrician. The doctor will take a urine sample and test it for bacteria. They can collect urine in a number of ways:

    • Older children can pee into a cup .
    • Younger children who aren’t toilet trained will have a plastic bag placed over their genitals to collect the urine.
    • Children who wear diapers can have a tube inserted into their urethra and bladder to collect the sample.
    • In infants, the doctor can place a needle straight into the bladder through the stomach to get the sample.

    At the lab, a technician looks at the sample under a microscope to see whether germs are in the urine. It might also be cultured — that means the lab tech places the urine in a dish to see what type of bacteria grow in it. This can help your doctor find the exact germs that caused your childââ¬â¢s UTI so theyââ¬â¢ll know the right type of medicine to prescribe to kill them.Ã

    If your child has had a few UTIs, your doctor might refer you to a nephrologist and do one or moreà of these imaging tests to look for problems in the urinary tract:

    How Long Does It Take For A Uti To Go Away Without Antibiotics

    Over The Counter Treatment for UTI Symptoms

    Think you might have a UTI but really dont want to call your doctor to talk about it? We get it. UTIs can be uncomfortable to discuss, and who wants to take the time to go into a doctors office?

    Know that what youre experiencing is totally common and normal. More than half of women experience a UTI in their lifetime. That means your doctor has seen a lot of patients in your situation. And if you dont consult with a professional, you risk sometimes serious complications.

    The most straightforward method for treating a UTI is a course of prescribed antibiotics. But if youve done any Googling , you may wonder how long it takes for a UTI to go away without antibiotics or what to do if antibiotics dont work. Will you have to suffer for weeks or even months?

    Dont panic! Were here to help. Lets take a closer look at how long it takes for a UTI to go away without antibiotics.

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