Medical Treatment For Pinworms
- Pyrantel pamoate
At first, your doctor will prescribe a single dose of any of the above-listed medications and then another single dose of the same drug 2 weeks later.
Even though these anthelmintic agents have a higher eradication rate than 90% against pinworms, they may fail to kill the eggs the pinworms spawn. This necessitates a second round of extermination to prevent reinfection.
Early treatment is crucial to prevent the spread of pinworm infection to your family, friends, and virtually anyone in your vicinity.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Emverm
EMVERM may cause serious side effects, including:
- Low white blood cell count . Neutropenia can cause you to get other infections. Your healthcare provider will check your blood count regularly during your treatment with EMVERM. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a fever or any signs of an infection while taking EMVERM.
- Severe skin reactions . EMVERM may cause rare, but serious skin reactions when taken with metronidazole and other medicines that contain mebendazole. These severe allergic reactions may be life-threatening and need to be treated in a hospital. Call your healthcare provider right away or get emergency medical help if you have any allergic reactions or the following symptoms:
- severe skin blisters
- sores around the mouth, nose, eyes, vagina or penis
- peeling skin
- swollen face, lips, mouth, tongue or throat
- itchy rash
The most common side effects of EMVERM include:
- loss of appetite
Risk Factors For Pinworm Infection
Small children are more likely to put objects in their mouth or use their hands for eating. This makes them naturally more susceptible to contracting pinworms. However, adults can get pinworm infections as well. Being in situations that encourage close proximity, such as living in an institutional environment or simply being a family under the same roof, can also raise the risk of contracting pinworms. Infections are known to spread quickly and be potentially undetected among family members.
Sharing clothes and washcloths or towels can also help spread infection, as can interacting with contaminated bed sheets. As mentioned, pinworm eggs can be inhaled, such as when they are sent airborne while shaking out contaminated sheets, clothes, pillow cases.
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Who Gets A Urinary Tract Infections
In the newborn period, both boys and girls get UTI. Boys seem to be at an increased risk if they are uncircumcised with a tight foreskin. Thereafter, UTI is much more common in girls, presumably because they have shorter urethras, leading to more frequent bacterial contamination of the bladder. In girls, itching caused by pinworms, sitting in bathwater for an extended time period, bubble bath, wiping from back to front, and sexual activity increase the likelihood of such bacterial contamination, and thereby increase the risk of UTI. In addition, the bacteria more readily cause infection in those girls who urinate infrequently or incompletely.
Signs And Symptoms Of A Pinworm Infection
Pinworm infections, because of the long incubation time or carrier states, can go unnoticed for a long time. However, in symptomatic cases the complaints of the infected individual include:
- Itching in and around the anus, which worsens at night
- Malaise or a general feeling of being unwell
- Vaginal inflammation
- Visualization of adult worms in the feces
- Eggs that are seen stuck to the skin around the anus
- General irritability
- Pain, rash, or other skin irritation/infection around the anus
- Mood swings or behavioral changes
- Abdominal pain, which can range from mild to intense
The symptoms of pinworm infection usually come and go in cycles of every 2 weeks, coincident with the life cycle of the worm.
Children with pinworms in the body do not usually exhibit any noticeable symptoms that can alert you to their condition. However, the infestation may be easier to spot in cases where the child becomes unusually cranky and agitated at night due to itching around the anus and vagina.
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Care For Pregnant Women
The hormonal and anatomical changes of pregnancy mean that being pregnant increases the risk for both urinary tract infections and yeast infections. Not only this but pregnant people and their unborn babies may experience more health complications with even simple infections. UTIs and yeast infections during pregnancy can lead to a higher risk of preeclampsia, premature labor, and low birth weight.
Pregnant women who think they have a UTI or a yeast infection should see their healthcare provider without delay, as these infections should be treated right away to prevent serious complications to both the mother and the child. Your healthcare provider can also help you pick the safest treatments, since some antibiotics and antifungals are not suitable for pregnant women.
What Are The Symptoms Of Pinworm Infections
Symptoms of a pinworm infection include:
- Anal itching, especially at night: Pinworms lay their eggs around the anus at night, causing itching and irritation. While symptoms are usually mild, anal itching can be severe.
- Sleeplessness: Because anal itching is worse at night, people suffering from a pinworm infection can have trouble sleeping, which can lead to decreased concentration, tiredness and weight loss.
- Vaginal itching: In females, symptoms can also include vaginal discharge and itching in the vaginal area.
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Causes And Risk Factors Of A Pinworm Infection
Quite simply, one gets a pinworm infection after ingesting worm eggs. To become infected, an individual either directly or indirectly transfers pinworm eggs from the anus to their mouth. In addition, because pinworm eggs are so teeny, they can become airborne, where they are inhaled and ingested. While pinworm infections affect people of all ages and socioeconomic background, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention those who are most impacted include:
- School-age and preschool-age children
- Those who share a household with infected individuals
- Individuals who are caregivers to the infected
The eggs laid on the skin surrounding the anus can survive for up to three weeks, which allows plenty of time for the infected person to scratch the area, have the eggs become embedded under the fingernails, and inadvertently reinfect themselves, thus continuing the parasites lifecycle.
Causes Of Pinworm Infection
You get pinworms by accidentally swallowing or breathing in their eggs. You could eat or drink something thatâs contaminated with them and not know it. The eggs can also live on surfaces like clothing, bedding, or other objects. If you touch one of these items and then put your fingers in your mouth, youâll swallow the eggs.
About a month later, the eggs hatch in your intestines and grow into adult worms. Female pinworms move to your anal area to lay their eggs. This causes anal itching. If you scratch the area, the eggs cling to your fingers and get under your nails. If you touch other surfaces or objects, you could spread the worms.
Are they contagious?
Yes. Itâs very easy to spread a pinworm infection.
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How Do You Get Them
Pinworms are spread from feces to the mouth. It can happen directly, like when your dirty fingers touch your mouth or food. It can also happen indirectly, like when you touch an object thatâs contaminated with eggs. Tiny pinworm eggs can live on surfaces — toys, bathroom fixtures, school desks, or bed linens — for up to 3 weeks.
Once inside your body, pinworms make a home in your colon and rectum. At night, female worms come outside to lay eggs in the skin around your anus. If you scratch the area, the eggs get on your fingers or under your nails, then wipe off on the next thing you touch. This is why pinworms are spread so easily among young children.
Tapeworms can live outside for months, waiting for a host to come along. Youâre most at risk if you work around livestock or travel to a country where hygiene is poor. You can also be infected if you eat or drink something that contains tapeworm eggs or larvae, like raw or undercooked beef or pork.
Once inside your body, the tapeworm head attaches to the wall of your intestines. It uses the food you eat to grow new segments. The older segments, which contain eggs, then break off and leave your body with your poop.
How Does It Cause Disease
Once the bacteria get into the bladder, they can grow in the urine, especially if the child does not empty the bladder frequently, or if there are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. If the infection of the bladder is not recognized and treated, it can move up the ureters and cause an infection of the kidneys.
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Alternative And Complementary Therapies
Adhering to stringent hygiene measures for six weeks, which is the lifespan of a pinworm, can clear up an infection without medication. These practices also reduce the risk of reinfection. If any member of your household is a nail-biter or thumb-sucker, this method is likely not right for you, notes ChildrensMD. These med-free measures include:
- Keep fingernails short.
- Wash bed linens, pajamas, towels, and washcloths with each use do not shake before laundering.
- Change hand towels daily.
- Vacuum carpets and clean floors at least once a week, paying special attention to the bedrooms and bathrooms.
- Clean kitchen and bathroom surfaces daily, especially faucets and the toilet flusher.
- Refrain from eating in the bedroom to avoid possibly swallowing eggs that have landed in bed linens.
- Keep toothbrushes in a closed cabinet.
Signs And Symptoms Of Pinworms
Many people with a pinworm infection don’t exhibit any symptoms. But generally speaking, when infected individuals do experience symptoms, it happens once the worms have relocated to the skin surrounding the anus to lay their eggs. Here, a sticky substance around the eggs can often irritate the skin, causing anal itching, which is the primary symptom of a pinworm infection. Other symptoms may include:
- Worms Present in Feces This is common, according to the National Organization for Rare Disorders.
- Difficulty Sleeping Pinworms move to the area around the anus at night in order to lay eggs, which can induce itching that disturbs sleep.
- Vaginal Itching
- Nausea and Vomiting These are rarely reported.
- Bed Wetting This is a rare symptom.
- Stomach Pain This is also rare.
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Pinworm Infection Risk Factors
Anyone can get a pinworm infection. Itâs the most common kind of worm infection in the United States. But itâs more likely if:
- Youâre between the ages of 5-10.
- You live with or take care of small children.
- You live in a crowded space, like a hospital or jail.
- You suck your thumb or bite your nails.
- You donât wash your hands.
Treatment And Medication Options For Pinworms
With proper hygiene, a pinworm infection is usually considered self-limiting, which means it can resolve on its own with no long-term ill effect. But most people would rather be sure the infection is gone and opt for treatment. Your healthcare provider will likely recommend that all members of your household get treated in order to prevent infection and reinfection , according to the Mayo Clinic. Treatments include the following:
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Pediatric Diagnosis And Management
Pinworm infection, or enterobiasis, is caused by Enterobius vermicularis, a small , white, threadlike roundworm that typically inhabits the cecum, adjacent areas of the ileum, ascending colon, and appendix. It is the most common helminth infection in the United States1 and is also prevalent throughout the world.2-5 Infection occurs by ingestion of embryonated eggs that are carried on fingernails, clothing, bedding, or house dust.1
Pinworm infection is prevalent in temperate climates, occurs in individuals of all ages , and in all socioeconomic levels. The highest incidence is in younger children from preschool to first grade,3,4 an age group of children who still suck their fingers.6 Transmission increases in school,7 in large families,8 in poorer communities with overcrowding, in areas where scarcity of water results in inadequate personal and community hygiene,2,9 and in institutional residences.1
Holly N. Burr, … Neil S. Lipman, in, 2012
How Threadworms Are Spread
Threadworms lay their eggs around an infected person’s anus , usually at night. Along with the eggs, the worm also secretes a mucus that causes itching.
If the eggs get stuck on the person’s fingertips when they scratch, they can be transferred to their mouth or on to surfaces and clothes. If other people touch an infected surface, they can then transfer the eggs to their mouth.
Threadworm eggs can survive for up to 2 weeks before hatching. If the eggs hatch around the anus, the newborn worms can re-enter the bowel. Eggs that have been swallowed will hatch inside the intestine. After 2 weeks, the worms reach adult size and begin to reproduce, starting the cycle again.
Read more about what causes threadworms.
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Using Garlic To Get Rid Of Pinworms
A good example of a common home remedy to treat pinworms is raw garlic. Garlic is not going to be appropriate for everyone, but can be effective.
- Finely chop raw, peeled garlic and stuff into 00 vegetable capsules
- Can cause digestive upset, especially in anyone who is FODMAP-sensitive
- Use before meals, not after contact and surface area matter
Urinary Tract Infections In Children: Why They Occur And How To Prevent Them
STANLEY HELLERSTEIN, M.D., University of MissouriKansas City School of Medicine and Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri
Am Fam Physician. 1998 May 15 57:2440-2446.
Urinary tract infections usually occur as a consequence of colonization of the periurethral area by a virulent organism that subsequently gains access to the bladder. During the first few months of life, uncircumcised male infants are at increased risk for UTIs, but thereafter UTIs predominate in females. An important risk factor for UTIs in girls is antibiotic therapy, which disrupts the normal periurethral flora and fosters the growth of uropathogenic bacteria. Another risk factor is voiding dysfunction. Currently, the most effective intervention for preventing recurrent UTIs in children is the identification and treatment of voiding dysfunction. Imaging evaluation of the urinary tract following a UTI should be individualized, based on the child’s clinical presentation and on clinical judgment. Both bladder and upper urinary tract imaging with ultrasonography and a voiding cystourethrogram should be obtained in an infant or child with acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies may not be required, however, in older children with cystitis who respond promptly to treatment.
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Discomfort In Anal Area
Discomfort in the anal area may also be a sign of a pinworm infection. These infections are quite common. They are not harmful. Taking medication and preventing re-infection can get rid of them quickly. Home remedies arent recommended as the first line of treatment for pinworms. However, there is no harm in trying a home remedy as well as medication. Some people believe that eating a cup of shredded raw carrot twice a day helps push the worms through the intestine. Carrots are rich in fiber. Also, they do support bowel movement.
Drugs For Treating Urinary Schistosomiasis
What is urinary schistosomiasis and how is it treated?
Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection of people with the parasitic worm Schistosoma haematobium. These worms live in blood vessels around the infected person’s bladder and the worm releases eggs which are released in the person’s urine. If the urine is passed into ponds or lakes, the eggs can hatch and infect people that are washing or swimming there. Infection can cause blood in the urine and if left untreated can eventually lead to anaemia, malnutrition, kidney failure, or bladder cancer. Urinary schistosomiasis is diagnosed by looking for worm eggs in the urine.
The disease occurs mainly in school-aged children and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa. The drug currently recommended for treatment is praziquantel, which can be given as a single dose, but other drugs such as metrifonate, artesunate, and mefloquine have also been evaluated.
After examining the research published up to 23th May 2014, we included 30 randomized controlled trials, enrolling 8165 children and adults.
What does the research say?
On average, the standard dose of praziquantel cures around 60% of people at one to two months after treatment , and reduces the number of schistosome eggs in the urine by over 95% .
Two more recent trials evaluated a combination of artesunate and praziquantel compared to praziquantel alone. In one trial artesunate improved cure and in one it made no difference.
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Skin Irritation In Anal Area
The trauma of scratching and moisture increases skin irritation in the anal area. Treatment of the pinworm infection will kill the worms. But the itching and irritation may continue for a few days. It is important to clean and dry the anus thoroughly. Dont leave any soap in the anal area. Many over-the-counter products are available to treat anal skin irritation. They are available as creams, ointments, gels, and more. It acts as a protective physical barrier on the skin.
How Can A Urinary Tract Infection Be Prevented
Preventive measures are useful to reduce the recurrence of UTI. Children should be treated for pinworms or constipation, if determined to be present, by a primary physician. Girls should take showers rather than baths, and be taught to wipe from the front to the back . Little girls often tend to “hold” their urine, which should be actively discouraged. All children should be encouraged to drink fluids frequently and to urinate every three to four hours .
The primary physician may suggest follow-up appointments for urine testing, or home follow-up using urine testing strips and urine specimens collected first thing in the morning. Any child with a positive home test or the symptoms of UTI should see a physician. Some children may be put on long-term antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrent infections, but this may result in the development of more resistant organisms.
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