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Common Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection

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Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.

In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.

In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.

During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.

Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:

  • use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
  • have had a new sexual partner in the last year
  • had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
  • have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
  • suffer from constipation

How Do You Get Urinary Tract Infections

The design of the human body makes it so it isnt hard to get a bacterial UTI, because the infection comes from outside, through the urethra. Bacteria in the genital area can enter the urethra and the urinary tract, either because wiping after going to the bathroom, sexual activity, or unsanitary conditions. Once the bacteria have entered the urethra, the body tries fight them off, but sometimes the bacteria multiply and cause an infection.

In the case of a fungal infection, usually the fungus gets to the urinary tract through the blood stream. Those who develop this type of infection are usually ill with a disease that has compromised their immune system, such as AIDS.

You Eat A Lot Of Sugar

Bacteria that cause UTIs love feeding on sugar, so you run the risk of providing a feast for them whenever your sweet tooth strikes. Kalas V, et al. Structure-based discovery of glycomimetic FmlH ligands as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion during urinary tract infection. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720140115

If you eat tons of added sugars and get a real surge in your blood sugar, you may end up with some of that sugar in your urine, says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Yale School of Medicine.

Some foods and beverages, like coffee, booze, and chocolate, can also irritate your delicate urinary tract and exacerbate an existing UTI.

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Institutionalized Older Adults & Catheterized Patients

Similar to other populations, the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in nursing home residents requires the presence of genitourinary symptoms in the setting of a positive urine culture. In older adults who are cognitively intact, the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is relatively straightforward. However, nursing home residents often suffer from significant cognitive deficits, impairing their ability to communicate, and chronic genitourinary symptoms , which make the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in this group particularly challenging. Furthermore, when infected, nursing home residents are more likely to present with nonspecific symptoms, such as anorexia, confusion and a decline in functional status fever may be absent or diminished . In the setting of atypical symptoms, providers are often faced with the challenge of differentiating a symptomatic UTI from other infections or medical conditions. The high prevalence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in this population often leads to the diagnosis of UTI. Although bacteriuria plus pyuria is necessary for diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed UTI, alone it is not sufficient for making the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI. To date, universally accepted criteria for diagnosing UTI in this population do not exist, making it difficult for providers to distinguish a symptomatic UTI from other conditions in the presence of new nonspecific symptoms.

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Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti

Pin on bladder

Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:

  • Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
  • Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.

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Can I Prevent Urine Infections

Unfortunately, there are few proven ways to prevent urine infections. No evidence has been found for traditional advice given, such as drinking cranberry juice or the way you wipe yourself.

There are some measures which may help in some cases:

  • It makes sense to avoid constipation, by eating plenty of fibre and drinking enough fluid.
  • Older women with atrophic vaginitis may wish to consider hormone replacement creams or pessaries. These have been shown to help prevent urine infections.
  • If there is an underlying medical problem, treatment for this may stop urine infections occurring.
  • For some people with repeated urine infections, a preventative low dose of antibiotic taken continuously may be prescribed.

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Control Of Urinary Tract Infections

For seniors that are immobile and can no longer take the best care of themselves, assisted living facilities may be a better option in ensuring that they are always dry and clean, and that proper preventive measures are followed. Senior caregivers at assisted living facilities are well trained about how to help elderly adults prevent and manage urinary tract infections. The senior caregivers will also accompany the elderly adults to visit their healthcare professionals.

The seniors may need to visit their healthcare provider to discuss the best care plan options. As urinary tract infection symptoms can present differently in each senior, the healthcare provider will be able to assess whether the older adult shows such a symptom.

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What Is The Root Cause Of Uti

Primary cause of UTIs The primary cause of most UTIs is bacteria, or more specifically, a type of bacteria called Escherichia coli . While you can get a UTI from other types of bacteria, E. coli is the culprit 90% of the time.

What is the most common Uropathogens causing uncomplicated UTI?

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections The most common causative agent for both uncomplicated and complicated UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli .

How Do I Read My Urine Test Results

Urinary Tract Infection, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Depending on which tests your healthcare provider ordered for your urinalysis, there may only be a few or several measurements on your test results. Laboratory reports, including urinalysis reports, usually provide the following information:

  • The name of the urine test or what was measured in your urine.
  • The number, measurement or assessment of your urine test result.
  • The normal result, measurement range or assessment for that test.
  • Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal.

Urine clarity refers to how clear your urine sample was. Most laboratories categorize the clarity of urine as one of the following:

If you had a chemical urine test, such as a glucose urine test or nitrite urine test, the results may be categorized as negative or positive and/or indicate the amount of the substance.

If you had a microscopic urine test, such as one that checked for red blood cells or bacteria, the laboratory will likely categorize the number of the substance as one of the following:

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When Urinary Tract Infections Keep Coming Back

If you are prone to recurrent UTIs, you can head them off before they take hold.

Unless youre in the fortunate minority of women who have never had a urinary tract infection , you know the symptoms well. You might feel a frequent urgency to urinate yet pass little urine when you go. Your urine might be cloudy, blood-tinged, and strong-smelling. For 25% to 30% of women whove had a urinary tract infection, the infection returns within six months.

If you have repeated UTIs, youve experienced the toll they take on your life. However, you may take some comfort in knowing that they arent likely to be the result of anything youve done. Recurrent UTIs arent due to poor hygiene or something else that women have brought on themselves. Some women are just prone to UTIs, says infectious diseases specialist Dr. Kalpana Gupta, a lecturer in medicine at Harvard Medical School.

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Quality Assessment / Risk Of Bias

Two review authors assessed the risk of bias of included studies independently, with any discrepancies being resolved by consensus, or through discussion with a third reviewer , if necessary. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the assessment checklist developed by Downs and Black . Quality items that pertained to interventions and trial studies were removed as they were not deemed to be appropriate for the studies included in this review. An additional five quality items were added to the quality assessment to determine if studies described the criteria used for confusion, UTI and bacteriuria, and if their criteria for UTI and confusion were valid and reliable. Criteria for confusion were deemed valid and reliable if accepted criteria were utilised, including: the Confusion Assessment Method, the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale or the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual criteria . Similarly, criteria for UTI were deemed valid and reliable if established criteria for UTI were utilised, including: the McGeer Criteria, the revised McGeer Criteria, the Loeb Criteria, or the Revised Loeb Criteria . The modified checklist finally consisted of 14 quality items, grouped into: reporting, internal validity, external validity and criteria . The risk of bias for each quality item was reported as low risk of bias, high risk of bias, unclear risk of bias or not applicable.

Table 2 Quality Assessment Criteria

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Infections And Dementia: The Link You Need To Know

Infections can cause short-term cognitive impairments that are reversible once they are treated, but they can also cause long-term cognitive impairment in people who are already on their way to dementia. As a result, the infection can reveal subtle symptoms of dementia in people who appear to have little dementia. It is also possible for UTI to cause permanent brain damage. Infections can damage nerves and brain cells, which is why skilled home health care professionals are so concerned. If you have any of the following symptoms, please see a doctor: confusion, decreased appetite, depression, a change in behavior, or difficulty speaking.

How Did I Get Staphylococcus Saprophyticus

Urinary Tract Infection

S. saprophyticus is part of the normal human flora that colonizes the perineum, rectum, urethra, cervix, and gastrointestinal tract. It has also been found that S. saprophyticus is a common gastrointestinal flora in pigs and cows and thus may be transferred to humans through eating these respective foods.

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Most Common Causes Of Utis

If youve ever had a urinary tract infection, then you know the agony of that terrible burning feeling and relentless need to peeand youd probably do anything to avoid getting another.

1 in 5 women experience a UTI at some point in her life. And while men can get them, too , women are much more likely to contract one. Thats because we have a shorter urethra, which makes it all too easy for UTI-causing bacteria to pass through it and invade the bladder. No fair.

Our urinary tract system is designed to keep out bacteria however, these defenses can fail, says Dr. Kelly M. Kasper. When that happens, bacteria can grow and multiply and cause infections.

Here are 8 of the most common causes of urinary tract infectionsand a handful of helpful tips for prevention.

What Are The Symptoms

It may be hard to figure out if a loved one has a UTI or not, because they may not have the classic symptoms. This is because urinary problems, such as incontinence, may have similar symptoms related to another issue, making it more difficult to recognize.

The classic, or common, symptoms of a UTI can include:

  • Burning while urinating
  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate
  • A feeling the bladder is not completely empty
  • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain

More severe symptoms of a complicated UTI can include:

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Can Uti Cause Permanent Dementia

There is no definitive answer to this question as the research on the matter is inconclusive. Some studies suggest that there is a link between UTIs and dementia, while other studies are not able to confirm this connection. It is possible that UTIs may contribute to the development of dementia, but further research is needed to determine if this is truly the case.

When bacteria enter the urethra through the urethra, they infect the bladder and kidneys, causing UTIs. Infection can cause serious health problems if left untreated. Urinary tract infections are commonly accompanied by fever, chills, or lower back pain. Despite this, dementia patients rarely succeed. UTIs can aggravate dementia symptoms, but they are not always indicative of dementia. Falls, recent incontinence, or a loss of appetite are all possible symptoms of a UTI infection. If left untreated, the infection can become life-threatening and spread to the blood stream.

How Are Utis Diagnosed

Acute pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection) – causes, symptoms & pathology

Only a health care provider can treat urinary tract infections. The first thing a doctor will do is confirm that a person has a UTI by taking a clean-catch urine specimen. At the doctor’s office, you’ll be asked to clean your genital area with disposable wipes and then pee into a sterile cup.

The sample may be used for a urinalysis or a urine culture . Knowing what bacteria are causing the infection can help your doctor choose the best treatment.

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Can Uti Cause Confusion In Young Adults

The UTI may be to blame if the person has a sudden and unexplained change in behavior, such as increased confusion, agitation, or withdrawal.

Complications are a common symptom of an urinary tract infection . It is a condition in which one is confused for an extended period of time. Dementia, on the other hand, is a progressive mental illness that affects people over time and causes them to lose their memory and intelligence. According to some researchers, UTIs and delirium do not have a direct relationship. Delirium is thought to be the only symptom of a UTI in older people. If a bedbound or dementia patient is having difficulty urinating or is frequently urination, it can be difficult for caregivers to tell if they are bedbound or dementia patient. The provider will try to determine the source of delirium in order to confirm the diagnosis.

How To Prevent Uti Re

Following some tips can help you avoid getting another UTI:

  • Empty your bladder often as soon as you feel the need to pee don’t rush, and be sure you’ve emptied your bladder completely.
  • Wipe from front to back after you use the toilet.
  • Drink lots of water.
  • Choose showers over baths.
  • Stay away from feminine hygiene sprays, scented douches, and scented bath products they’ll only increase irritation.
  • Cleanse your genital area before sex.
  • Pee after sex to flush out any bacteria that may have entered your urethra.
  • If you use a diaphragm, unlubricated condoms, or spermicidal jelly for birth control, you may want to switch to another method. Diaphragms can increase bacteria growth, while unlubricated condoms and spermicides can irritate your urinary tract. All can make UTI symptoms more likely.
  • Keep your genital area dry by wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes. Donââ¬â¢t wear tight jeans and nylon underwear they can trap moisture, creating the perfect environment for bacteria growth.

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Various Predisposing Factors Increase The Risk Of Urinary Tract Infections In The Elderly Adults

Common healthcare conditions associated with old age such as dementia, Alzheimers disease, and Parkinsons disease may contribute to a reason for why an elder adult could find it difficult to control when they urinate. As a result, this may lead to neglect of self-care, poor hygiene, or urinary retention. Many of the organisms, especially E. coli, thrive and multiply in significant numbers when there is urine retention in an unclean environment. Similarly, these older adults may also be at an increased risk of incontinence. Thus, you may consider encouraging your elderly loved one to wear incontinence briefs. If the incontinence briefs are not changed frequently, then the older adults may be predisposed to an infection. Fortunately, assisted living facility caregivers are available to support seniors with their activities of daily living and ensuring proper hygiene to reduce infections.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Utis In The Elderly

Urinary Tract Conditions [INFOGRAPHIC]

Detecting UTI symptoms in seniors can be tricky because many of them affect behavior, so they can be missed or attributed to more serious illnesses.

The classic, universal symptoms for UTIs are frequent urination, burning pain, cloudy urine and lower back pain. But because senior citizens immune systems are not functioning at optimal levels, the symptoms will take a different turn and produce some unsettling side effects:

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