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How Do You Diagnose A Urinary Tract Infection

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What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Signs & Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

Not surprisingly, some of the symptoms of a UTI involve the frequency and quality of pee. Women suffering from a UTI, whether they get the infection from sex or other ways, can have a strong urge to urinate, have cloudy or red or pink urine, and may experience pain or burning during urination.

You might also get fever, shaking, or chills, and even pain in your upper back, your side, or the pelvic region.

Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection

Bacteria are the most common cause of UTIs , but it can be caused by fungi which is rare. The most common cause is E. coli bacteria, which live in the bowel. There many factors increasing chance of getting UTI , like the following:

  • drinking less fluids than required.
  • Not urinating intentionally for long periods , being busy or for any other reason.
  • When the flow of urine is blocked by conditions like tumors , stones , enlarged prostate.
  • Suppressed body immunity in conditions like Diabetes and others.

Diagnosis of UTI

The following are the common tests and procedures used for diagnosis:

  • Urine analysis :To check for the presence of pus cells and bacteria. Cloudiness , White blood cells , Bacteria, yeast or parasites can indicate infection.
  • Urine culture: To check for the exact type of organism causing infection , which is usually E.coli.
  • Cystoscopy: To view the inside of the urethra and urinary bladder.
  • CT scan of the abdomen is performed to check presence any abnormalities in the urinary tract.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen provides a complete image of urinary tract.

Can A Uti Cause Strange Behavior

In addition to agitation and confusion, there may be agitation, restlessness, and hallucinations. UTI symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways, depending on the individual, and this can happen regardless of age or health status. Pregnant women, women who are experiencing menopause, and those with diabetes are all at a higher risk of developing a UTI.

Recommended Reading: What Antibiotics Are Given For Urinary Tract Infections

Other Ways To Prevent Some Utis Coming Back

If you keep getting a bladder infection , there is some evidence it may be helpful to take:

  • D-mannose a sugar you can buy as a powder or tablets to take every day
  • cranberry products available as juice, tablets or capsules to take every day

Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.

Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.

If you’re taking warfarin, you should avoid cranberry products.

Page last reviewed: 22 March 2022 Next review due: 22 March 2025

Urgent Advice: Ask For An Urgent Gp Appointment Or Get Help From Nhs 111 If:


You think you, your child or someone you care for may have a urinary tract infection and:

  • a very high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
  • a very low temperature below 36C
  • are confused, drowsy or have difficulty speaking
  • have not been for a pee all day
  • have pain in the lower tummy or in the back, just under the ribs
  • can see blood in their pee

These symptoms could mean you have a kidney infection, which can be serious if it’s not treated as it could cause .

You can call 111 or get help from 111 online.

Read Also: Pelvic Floor Muscle Training For Urinary Incontinence

Can Antibiotics For Utis Interfere With Birth Control

Nope, the antibiotics youâre taking for a UTI wonât interfere with your birth controlphew! The only antibiotics that might impact hormonal contraception are rifampicin and rifabutin, according the UKâs National Health Service. Those medications are used to treat certain bacterial infections, like tuberculosis, but not UTIs.

With that said, other medications can make hormonal birth control less effective, per Penn Medicine, so itâs always a good idea to check in with your doctor or pharmacist about potential interference with birth control whenever youâre taking something new.

Another thing to note is that spermicide can make you more susceptible to UTIs, per Mayo Clinic. Also, the new birth control gel Phexxi is not recommended for people with a history of recurrent UTIs, according to the National Womenâs Health Network. If youâre frequently coming down with UTIs, it might be a good idea to talk with your doctor about whether switching birth control could help.

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Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented

These steps may help reduce the chance of getting UTIs:

  • Drink plenty of water every day.
  • Drink cranberry juice. Large amounts of vitamin C limit the growth of some bacteria by acidifying the urine. Vitamin C supplements have the same effect.
  • Urinate when you feel the need. Do not wait.
  • Take showers instead of tub baths.
  • Clean the genital area before and after sex, and urinate shortly after sex.
  • Women should not use feminine hygiene sprays or scented douches.
  • Cotton underwear and loose fitting clothes help keep the area around the urethra dry. Tight clothes and nylon underwear trap moisture. This can help bacteria grow.
  • Repeated bouts of urinary tract infections can be treated with small doses of regular antibiotics.

Please consult your health care provider with any questions or concerns you may have about UTIs.

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Key Points About Urinary Tract Infections

  • Urinary tract infections are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. These infections can affect any part of the urinary tract.
  • Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
  • The most common symptoms of UTIs include changes in urination such as frequency, pain, or burning urine looks dark, cloudy, or red and smells bad back or side pain nausea/vomiting and fever.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. Other treatments may include pain relievers, and drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract.
  • Other things that can be done may help reduce the likelihood of developing UTIs.

How To Prevent Uti Re

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

Following some tips can help you avoid getting another UTI:

  • Empty your bladder often as soon as you feel the need to pee don’t rush, and be sure you’ve emptied your bladder completely.
  • Wipe from front to back after you use the toilet.
  • Drink lots of water.
  • Choose showers over baths.
  • Stay away from feminine hygiene sprays, scented douches, and scented bath products they’ll only increase irritation.
  • Cleanse your genital area before sex.
  • Pee after sex to flush out any bacteria that may have entered your urethra.
  • If you use a diaphragm, unlubricated condoms, or spermicidal jelly for birth control, you may want to switch to another method. Diaphragms can increase bacteria growth, while unlubricated condoms and spermicides can irritate your urinary tract. All can make UTI symptoms more likely.
  • Keep your genital area dry by wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes. Donââ¬â¢t wear tight jeans and nylon underwear they can trap moisture, creating the perfect environment for bacteria growth.

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Read Also: Why Did I Get A Urinary Tract Infection

Preventing Urinary Tract Disease In Your Cat

  • 1Change your cats diet. Urinary tract disease, particularly kidney and bladder stones, can recur after initial treatment. Several specially formulated therapeutic diets are available that can both treat and prevent feline urinary tract disease. Purchase the diet through your veterinarianpet store foods that claim to aid in the prevention of urinary tract disease may not be as effective as veterinarian-prescribed therapeutic diets.XResearch source
  • Your veterinarian will recommend which diet will be best for your cat.
  • Switch your cats diet gradually by slowly increasing the amount of new food versus old food until she is eating 100% new food. A sudden change could upset her digestive system and be stressful to her.
  • Urinary diets add acid to your cats urine to prevent stone formation. Do not supplement your cats diet with urine acidifiersthey can damage your cats kidneys and cause an imbalance in her bodys minerals.
  • 2Give your cat plenty of fresh water. A limitless supply of fresh water will encourage your cat to drink more. You can also encourage her to drink more by giving her water with a syringe or feeding her more wet food.XResearch source
  • Consider increasing the number of water bowls around your home or purchasing a cat fountain to encourage more drinking.XResearch source
  • Pheromones are available at your local pet store.
  • If your cats stress or anxiety is especially bad, your veterinarian may prescribe an anti-anxiety medication for her.XResearch source
  • Urinary Tract Infection In Men

    Things work differently for both men and women when it comes to getting urinary tract infections . These infections are far more common in women in fact, one out of five women will become infected at some point in her life, while most men will never develop a UTI. However, it does not mean men cannot develop a urinary tract infection at all. While young men rarely develop one, it is relatively more common in elderly men. Your risk of developing UTIs increases after the age of 50.

    Recommended Reading: How To Prevent Urinary Tract Infections In Females

    What Increases Men’s Risks For Utis

    Certain factors and underlying conditions can increase risk of urinary tract infection in men. For instance:

    • Enlarged Prostate: You may not be able to empty your bladder completely due to an enlarged prostate. Over time, some urine accumulates in the bladder, providing bacteria with a feasible environment to grow and cause infection.
    • Urinary Catheter: In so many cases, a thin hollow tube called a catheter is required to help you pass urine. Having a catheter puts you at a greater risk of developing urinary tract infections.
    • Kidney or Bladder Problems: Having kidney or bladder problems also increases risk of developing a urinary tract infection in men. Kidney stones, for instance, keep you from emptying your bladder completely, giving bacteria a chance to grow in stagnant pool of urine.
    • Weakened Immune System: If your immune system is weak due to AIDs, chemotherapy, or another reason, you are more likely to develop different types of infections, including urinary tract infections.

    What’s more, you may end up developing a UTI if you have had a recent urinary tract procedure, such as insertion of a small camera to examine urethra and bladder or a tube to drain your bladder. While these are some of the most common causes of developing a UTI, you may still develop one even when there is no problem with the kidney, bladder, immune system, or prostate.

    What Are The Risk Factors For Getting Bladder Infections And Other Uti Infections

    Urinary Tract Conditions [INFOGRAPHIC]

    A person is more likely to get a bladder infection if they dont urinate frequently enough. If they hold their urine in, the bacteria can collect in the bladder and lead to infection. Try to go to the bathroom at least every two to three hours to keep this from happening.

    Not drinking enough water is another risk factor for bladder infections because your body doesnt move as much urine through the bladder as quickly.

    Risk factors for urethritis include having a sexually transmitted infection or from trauma to the urethra, such as due to the insertion of a urinary catheter.

    In addition to these specific risk factors for bladder infections, there are general risk factors for all UTI types. These include:

    risk factors for uti

    • having diabetes, as a person experiences changes to their immune system that make them more prone to UTIs
    • having an enlarged prostate
    • having low levels of estrogen, such as when a woman is post-menopausal
    • having a history of kidney stones, which can block the flow of urine through the urinary tract

    Women are also more likely than men to get UTIs because their urethra is shorter. The bacteria have less distance to go to reach the bladder and can cause infections.

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    Home Remedies To Relieve Utis

    If you do find yourself with a Urinary Tract Infection, there are several home remedies you can try before resorting to an over the counter or prescription drug.

    • Increase Your Water Intake. An increase in fluids can help flush out the urinary tract and put you on the road to recovery. Just make sure you’re drinking water and avoid any sugary or caffeinated drinks.

    • Empty Your Bladder Frequently. Emptying your bladder helps you get rid of the bacteria that’s causing the infection. Be sure to go whenever you feel the urge – dont hold it in!

    • Take Some Vitamin C. Eat plenty of foods rich in Vitamin C, or take a supplement to make your urine more acidic. This helps prevent the growth of bacteria in your urine.

    • Watch What You Eat. Avoiding bladder irritants can help make it easier for your body to fight off infections within the urinary tract. Steer clear of spicy foods, acidic foods, carbonated drinks, or sugary sweets.

    • Use Heat To Relieve Pain. Urinary Tract Infections can be painful. Use a heating pad on the stomach or pubic area to relieve discomfort, or take a warm bath.

    • Baking Soda. This household staple can help neutralize the acidity in your urine, helping you to heal from the infection. Add a teaspoon of baking soda to a glass of water and drink up.

    Whats The Difference Between A Urinary Tract Infection And Bladder Infection

    A urinary tract infection is a more general type of infection. There are many parts of your urinary tract. A UTI is a term for an infection that takes place throughout the urinary tract. A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is a specific infection. In this infection, bacteria makes its way into the bladder and causes inflammation.

    Not all urinary tract infections become bladder infections. Preventing the spread of the infection is one of the most important reasons to treat a UTI quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can spread not only to the bladder, but also into your kidneys, which is a more complicated type of infection than a UTI.

    Read Also: Bladder Control Products For Urinary Incontinence

    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Utis

    If you have a UTI, you may:

    • pass very small amounts of urine
    • feel the need or urge to pass urine frequently
    • feel that the bladder is still full after passing urine
    • feel unwell with nausea and fever
    • experience confusion
    • have pain stinging or a burning feeling when urinating
    • have smelly, cloudy, dark or blood in the urine
    • pain in the lower back or sides or feel uncomfortable in your lower abdomen

    Signs of UTIs in children can also include:

    Getting Tested For A Uti

    How do you know you have a bladder infection? | Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms

    Testing for a UTI usually takes place in a doctors office, laboratory, or hospital. Most tests for UTIs involve a urine sample obtained by clean-catch or catheterization. Your doctor can help determine which method is appropriate for you.

    • Clean catch urine samples are collected by patients with special precautions to prevent outside germs from getting into the urine sample. Patients are given instructions on obtaining a clean catch sample and avoiding contamination.
    • Catheterization involves inserting a thin rubber tube through the urethra into the bladder. When performing this procedure, the urine is collected in a sterile container for testing before removing the catheter.

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    How Soon After A Uti Can You Have Sex

    Its best to wait until the UTI has been treated to start having intercourse again. Your doctor will give you the green light about when that is, but its safe to assume it will be at least a week until youve finished your antibiotic regimen.

    Even if you no longer notice symptoms, try your best to refrain from sexual activity until you are fully cleared of infection and done with your treatment.

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    What Is A Uti

    A urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria or other microbes, usually fecal flora, enter the urinary tract and cause an infection. The urinary tract is the bodys system for collecting and eliminating urine and includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

    UTIs can affect several parts of the urinary tract. Most UTIs occur in the bladder , but they may also involve the kidneys , urethra , or prostate . UTIs are common, most frequently affecting women, resulting in more than 8.1 million visits to a doctor each year.

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    Can A Uti Cause Mental Issues In Elderly

    There is no definitive answer to this question as the research on the matter is inconclusive. Some studies suggest that there is a connection between UTIs and mental issues in the elderly, while other studies are not able to confirm this link. It is possible that UTIs may contribute to mental issues in the elderly, but more research is needed to determine the extent of this connection.

    Those over the age of 65 are twice as likely as those between the ages of 35 and 44 to develop an UTI, and those over the age of 75 are three times as likely as those younger than 35 to develop one. In addition, people with a history of UTIs are more likely to develop them again. Antibiotics, on the other hand, can be used to treat UTIs more effectively than traditional methods. Untreated, they can lead to kidney and bladder cancer, which can occur. As a result, it is critical that you get your UTI checked out as soon as possible. It is more likely for the elderly to develop UTIs, and it is more likely for those with a history of UTIs to develop them. Untreated UTIs can cause kidney damage and bladder cancer.

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