Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented Or Avoided
There are many lifestyle choices that can help you prevent UTIs. These are some of the things you can do to protect yourself from them:
- Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. For some people, drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. However, if youre taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor may need to adjust your warfarin dose or you may need to have more frequent blood tests.
- Dont hold your urine. Urinate when you feel like you need to. Some children dont go to the bathroom often enough. If your child does this, teach him or her to go to the bathroom several times each day.
- Wipe from front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly.
- Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria.
- Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if youre a little dry.
- If you get urinary tract infections often, you may want to avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method. Ask your doctor about other birth control choices.
- Avoid taking or giving your child bubble baths.
- Wear loose-fitting clothing , and dress your child in loose-fitting clothing.
- If you are uncircumcised, wash the foreskin regularly. If you have an uncircumcised boy, teach him how to wash his foreskin.
Treatment From A Gp For Utis That Keep Coming Back
If your UTI comes back after treatment, you may have a urine test and be prescribed different antibiotics.
Your doctor or nurse will also offer advice on how to prevent UTIs.
If you keep getting UTIs and regularly need treatment, a GP may give you a repeat prescription for antibiotics.
If you have been through the menopause, you may be offered a vaginal cream containing oestrogen.
Why Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Usually Doesnt Warrant Antibiotics
Clinical studies overwhelming find that in most people, treating asymptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotics does not improve health outcomes.
A 2015 clinical research study found that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women was associated with a much higher chance of developing a UTI later on, and that these UTIs were more likely to involve antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Even for frail nursing home residents, there is no proof that treating asymptomatic bacteriuria improves outcomes, but it does increase the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Despite the expert consensus that this condition doesnt warrant antibiotics, inappropriate treatment remains very common. A 2014 review article on this topic notes overtreatment rates of up to 83% in nursing homes.
Is there a role for cranberry to treat or manage urine bacteria?
The use of cranberry juice or extract to prevent UTIs has been promoted by certain advocates over the years, and many patients do prefer a natural approach when one is possible.
However, top quality clinical research has not been able to prove that cranberry is effective for this purpose. In a 2016 study of older women in nursing homes, half were given cranberry capsules daily. But this made no difference in the amount of bacteria or white blood cells in their urine.
A 2012 systematic review of high-quality research studies of cranberry for UTI prevention also concluded that cranberry products did not appear to be effective.
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Dont Sabotage Your Recovery
Dont give in and reach for the foods that are hurting you. I really sabotaged myself for a while because I would not give up that one cup of coffee in the morning. Once I got past that, I started to get better. Dont undermine your recovery with that one glass of wine or cup of coffee, the way I did. Just stop. If all goes well, this will be a temporary situation. You can go back to enjoying those things later, but for now, you have to get this situation under control.
Instead of your regular acidic indulgences, milk or vanilla ice cream can be pleasant and very soothing. Make sure you get a brand of ice cream that does not contain a lot of chemicals.
Common Uti Symptoms And Signs
The urine of most healthy, properly hydrated people appears light yellow or clear and is nearly free of odor. It also causes zero pain or discomfort to pass.
But for the majority of people who experience a urinary tract infection, thats not the case. Instead, they will likely encounter at least one of the following indicators:
When the kidneys are infected, other noticeable symptoms may include:
- Fever, shaking, and chills
- Nausea and vomiting
- Upper back, side, or groin pain
While its been long noted that confusion in the elderly is a sign of UTI, a 2019 report in BMC Geriatrics concludes that theres insufficient evidence connecting the symptom to that diagnosis.
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Im Pregnant How Will A Uti Affect My Baby
If you have a UTI and it isnt treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. Fortunately, asymptomatic bacteriuria and bladder infections are usually found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and properly, it wont hurt your baby.
What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.
More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.
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Urinary Tract Infection And Surgery
Surgery may be recommended in cases of recurrent UTIs. A need for surgery is common in men who have prostatitis. The inflamed prostate increases pressure on the bladder, which interferes with urine flow.
Often the same bacteria that cause prostatitis can also cause UTIs in men, so after antibiotic treatment is complete, surgery can be done to reduce the size of the prostate. Some surgeries that require the use of a catheter afterward can increase the risk for UTI.
Uti Signs And Symptoms In Childrenare Different
UTIs are the second most common type of infection in children, behind ear infections. Unfortunately, early symptoms of UTI in young children are not always apparent. And sometimes there are no UTI symptoms at all, or your child is simply unable to articulate the UTI symptoms he or she is experiencing. When it comes to babies under 2 years old, parents need to tune in to these signs of a urinary tract infection:
- Fever A fever of 104°F or higher may be the sole symptom in babies. Its also the most common symptom of UTI during babys first two years.
- Jaundice Up to 18 percent of babies with prolonged or worsening jaundice also have UTIs. When jaundice occurs one full year after birth, its a strong indicator of UTI.
- Poor feeding or failure to thrive
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Crying while urinating
Meanwhile, older children generally have similar symptoms to adults, including urgency, cloudy urine, and pain during urination. For children whove already been toilet trained, bed-wetting is also a sign of a UTI.
How Do I Know If The Treatment Isnt Working
If the treatment isnt working, your symptoms will stay the same, get worse, or you will develop new symptoms. Call your doctor if you have a fever , chills, lower stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting. You should also call your doctor if, after taking medicine for 3 days, you still have a burning feeling when you urinate. If you are pregnant, you should also call your doctor if you have any contractions.
Clinical Outcomes Associated With Asb
Studies of the clinical impact of ASB are often confounded by the differences between persons who do and who do not have ASB at baseline. For example, 490 generally healthy women were included in a prospective study to assess the association between bacteriuria and renal function of these, 48 had E. coli bacteriuria at baseline. Over a mean of 12 years of follow-up, no association was found between E. coli bacteriuria and a decline in renal function. A subsequent analysis in generally the same cohort found that E. coli bacteriuria at baseline was associated with development of hypertension, but even at baseline, the E. coli bacteriuria group had a higher incidence of hypertension.
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Cystitis In Men And Older People
Men tend to get cystitis later in life. Where trouble with urine flow is a symptom, this may indicate that the underlying cause is a problem with their prostate gland.
Cystitis is common in older people, particularly if they are unwell. Bladder catheters and some urinary-tract operations may also increase the risk of cystitis.
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Bladder Infection Symptoms No Infection
The main symptoms of interstitial cystitis are:
- sudden strong urges to pee
- needing to pee more often than normal
- waking up several times during the night to go to the toilet
The pain may be worse when your bladder is full and may be temporarily relieved when you go to the toilet.
You might also find the pain is worse during periodsor after having certain foods or drinks.
The symptoms will often come and go in phases. You may have episodes lasting days, weeks or months where your symptoms improve, followed by times when theyre worse.
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Vaginal Itching Is A Very Personal But Highly Annoying Problem That Many Women Have
These same women may also have a bladder or urinary tract infection.
Bladder infections typically do not cause vaginal itching, says Michael Ingber, MD, board certified in urology, female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery, and founder of The Center for Specialized Womens Health, division of Garden State Urology.
Dr. Ingber continues, Urinary tract infections occur when the bacteria in the vaginal region or perineum travel into the urinary tract through the urethra .
When there is overgrowth of this bacteria, this can become an infection.
Symptoms of a bladder infection are typically urinary symptoms such as urinary urgency, frequency, leakage or burning with urination.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Utis
UTIs can cause such signs as:
- pain, burning, or a stinging sensation when peeing
- an increased urge or more frequent need to pee
- waking up at night a lot to go to the bathroom
- belly pain in the area of the bladder
- foul-smelling pee that may look cloudy or contain blood
If you have any symptoms of a UTI, youll need to go to a doctor right away. The sooner you begin treatment, the less uncomfortable youll be. Call your doctors office or clinic. If you cant reach your doctor, you can visit an urgent care center or hospital emergency room. The most important thing is to take action as soon as possible.
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How To Tell The Difference Between Asymptomatic Bacteriuria And A Uti
By definition, in asymptomatic bacteriuria, there should be no UTI symptoms present.
The following signs and symptoms can be caused by UTI:
- Burning or pain with urination
- Increased frequency or urgency of urination
- Bloody urine
- Pain in the low abdomen, flank, or even back
30103-7/fulltext?rss=yes” rel=”nofollow”> Cloudy, Foul-Smelling Urine Not a Criteria for Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Older Adults.)
Whether or not an older person has a clinical UTI, the urine dipstick may be abnormal, in part because certain abnormal results suggestive of UTI may in fact only reflect bacterial colonization of the bladder. So one should not rely on urine dipsticks or related urine analysis tests as the sole justification for diagnosing a UTI. Symptoms are necessary!
The thing is, some older adults may only show vague or non-specific symptoms when they get a UTI, such as confusion or weakness. This is especially true of seniors who are frail, or are quite old, or have Alzheimers or another dementia.
For this reason, it can be difficult to determine whether a frail or cognitively impaired older person is having UTI symptoms that warrant treatment.
Experts are currently debating whether its justified to treat for possible UTI, for those cases in which an older person with asymptomatic bacteriuria shows signs of delirium, but no other UTI symptoms.
Diagnosis Treatment And Prevention
Because it does not present with symptoms, this type of UTI can only be diagnosed through a urine culture examination.
Once the condition is isolated, doctors typically prescribe a single dose antibiotic for UTI.
However, except for cases enumerated above, most people without symptoms do not bother to have this procedure done. However there may be instances when bacteria growth does not require treatment because no worrisome symptoms affect the patients daily activities.
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Treatment Of Bladder Urinary Tract Infections
The specific intervention depends on the severity of the symptoms. In many instances, healthy patients who have a urinary tract infection but have no symptoms require no treatment at all. Such asymptomatic UTIs typically resolve within two to three days.
If urinary tract infection symptoms are presentsuch as a burning sensation during urination or an increased need to urinatetreatment usually consists of antibiotic medications, which are prescribed for three to 14 days. They include:
- Trimethoprim: Trimethoprim is the standard treatment for urinary tract infections in otherwise-healthy adults. It is one of the more potent UTI antibiotics, so most patients only require a three-day course. Trimethoprim is generally well-tolerated with few side effects, which generally include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea/constipation or stomach pain.
- Nitrofurantoin: Nitrofurantoin is the second most commonly prescribed antibiotic for bladder UTIs. It usually requires a longer course than trimethroprim , and is usually well tolerated but should not be taken by anyone with kidney disease. Side effects include nausea and vomiting.
- Cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are often used as a first-line of treatment in patients that have upper urinary tract infections involving the ureters or kidneys. It is usually taken for seven to 10 days. Side effects include nausea, vomiting, upset stomach and diarrhea.
The Pathogen: The Commensal Flora
UTI is frequently caused by organisms which are normal commensals in the distal urethra and adjacent sites. The most common route of infection is by ascension. The well-recognized gender difference in the prevalence of UTI is clearly related to the short length of the female urethra. Uropathogens are part of the normal faecal flora. These bacteria colonize the perianal region and then ascend in females to the introitus vaginae which is a reservoir for several uropathogens, particularly if the vaginal flora is not intact. Colonization spreads to the periurethral area, urethra, and bladder, strongly depending on sexual activity. Even during voiding, however, there is sufficient turbulence in the female urethra to allow backflow of organisms into the bladder. The role of normal vaginal flora in the defence against genital colonization with potentially pathogenic adhering E. coli has been demonstrated in several studies. The reported vaginal colonization rate of E. coli varies from 6 to 26% .
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Who Gets Urinary Tract Infections
Anyone can get a urinary tract infection, but they are more common in women. This is because the urethra in females is shorter and closer to the anus, where E. coli bacteria are common. Older adults also are at higher risk for developing cystitis. This increased risk may be due to incomplete emptying of the bladder. There are several medical conditions that can be related to this, including an enlarged prostate or a bladder prolapse .
If you get frequent urinary tract infections, your healthcare provider may do tests to check for other health problems such as diabetes or an abnormal urinary systemthat may be contributing to your infections. People with frequent UTIs are occasionally given low-dose antibiotics for a period of time to prevent the infection from coming back. This cautious approach to treating frequent UTIs is because your body can develop a resistance to the antibiotic and you can get other types of infections, such as C. diff colitis. This practice is used very infrequently.
Why Are Urinary Tract Infections More Common Among Women Than Men
Before delving into the symptoms associated with UTIs, lets explore why they are more prevalent in women than men. The long and short of it is that women have a much shorter urethra than men, which means that if bacteria were to develop, it does not need to travel as far to reach the bladder where it can cause a urinary tract infection.
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How Common Are Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are very common, occurring in 1 out of 5 women sometime in their lifetime. Though UTIs are common in women, they can also happen to men, older adults and children. One to 2% of children develop urinary tract infections. Each year, 8 million to 10 million visits to doctors are for urinary tract infections.
Patient Groups With Asb Who Should Not Be Treated
Elderly persons living in the community
Persons with spinal cord injury
Catheterized patients while the catheter remains in place
Several prospective studies had established that ASB in premenopausal, non-pregnant women is not associated with long-term adverse outcomes and treatment of ASB neither decreases the frequency of symptomatic infection nor prevents further episodes of ASB. More recently, a randomized, non-placebo controlled trial studied ASB specifically in women with recurrent UTI. This study enrolled 673 women ages 18-40 with recurrent UTI and ASB at baseline. Women were split into two groups, treated with a single course of antibiotics or not treated, and followed for 12 months. At the last follow-up, 41 in the untreated group and 169 in the treated group had a symptomatic UTI . This finding is in line with a prior observational cohort study that reported women who had received antimicrobials during the previous 15-28 days were at higher risk for UTI. A plausible explanation is that antibiotics may predispose to UTI by altering the flora colonizing the vagina.
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