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What Is Urinary Tract Disease

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Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

Men can get UTIs, particularly if they have trouble with urine flow. Older men who experience prostatitis are at a higher risk. If the bladder is not emptying properly, the build up ofurine makes it more difficult to cure the infection.

A small number of young men may get a UTI. In males, this is usually the result of a sexually transmitted disease.

Can I Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

You can usually prevent a urinary tract infection with lifestyle changes. These tips can include:

In some post-menopausal women, a healthcare provider may suggest an estrogen-containing vaginal cream. This may reduce the risk of developing a UTI by changing the pH of the vagina. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have recurrent UTIs and have already gone through menopause.

Over-the-counter supplements are also available for UTIs. These are sometimes recommended for people who have frequent UTIs as another way to prevent them. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting any supplements and ask if these could be a good choice for you.

Prevention Of Urinary System Diseases

Urinary system diseases can also be prevented if people take certain precautions.

  • Urine calmly, do not rush while you are urinating
  • Keep yourself hydrated by drinking six to eight glasses of water daily
  • Dont hold your urine for a longer time.
  • Avoid using oil, soap, or any sort of fragrance near your genital area
  • Take care of your hygiene
  • Wear comfortable clothes
  • Keep your genital area clean
  • Drink fresh juices and eat healthily
  • Kegel exercise can help to strengthen your pelvic muscles. So take time out to do it.

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What Causes Urinary Tract Disease

FLUTD is a multifactor disease. There is no single cause of feline urinary tract disease. Veterinarians do recognize that there are components that may contribute to the prevalence of the disease. For more detailed information, always contact your veterinarian. Risk factors include the following:

  • Cats more than 1 year of age are most susceptible.
  • Overweight cats, lack of exercise.
  • History of chronic kidney disease or urinary tract procedures.
  • Both male and females cats get the disease with equal frequency, but neutered male cats have a greater risk of life-threatening urethral obstruction from the crystals or stones.

Nutritional Risks: You already know that the food you feed your cat is extremely important to her overall health. But feeding the wrong food can contribute to the development of a urinary tract disease . With FLUTD, crystals or stones form within the urinary tract and cause irritation, pain and possibly blockage. In severe cases, this can lead to kidney damage or may even be fatal if not properly treated.

  • An abundance of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium — often found in grocery store brand cat food — can cause crystals to form in the urine, which sometimes leads to urinary stones.
  • Food influences the pH, or acidity, of urine. Urine should be moderately acidic for a healthy urinary tract because its harder for struvite crystals to grow in an acidic environment

What Are Urinary Disorders

Urinary system diseases: Infographics to understand

The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Your kidneys filter your blood, creating urine, which travels through the ureters to the bladder, where it is stored. When the appropriate time comes, the muscles of your bladder contract and urine exits your body through your urethra. Urinary disorders include any diseases, disorders or conditions that affect your kidneys, ureters, bladder or urethra, or that affect their function.

Examples of urinary disorders include cancers of the urinary tract, incontinence , interstitial cystitis, kidney stones, kidney failure, and urinary tract infections. Common symptoms of urinary disorders include abdominal, pelvic, or lower back pain or discomfort blood in the urine changes in the urine difficulty producing urine fever and chills frequent urination leaking of urine and urgent need to urinate. Some urinary disorders, such as infections, may develop quickly, while others, such as cancer, develop more slowly.

Urinary disorders can be caused by cancer, conditions affecting the structures near the urinary tract, infection, inflammation, injury, nervous system diseases, scarring, and urine crystallization. Treatment of urinary disorders involves identifying and treating the cause and symptoms. Some examples of possible treatments include self-care measures, medications to relieve pain, medications to relax the bladder, antibiotics, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.

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What Does A Urinalysis Look At

If your cat presents to your veterinarian with urinary signs, your veterinarian will first perform a urinalysis. The urinalysis can reveal so much important information about the urine when a UTI is suspected. Your veterinarian will look at the following:

  • urine-specific gravity
  • pH
  • ketones
  • glucose
  • bilirubin
  • blood
  • protein

Once these levels are measured, the urine specimen is placed into a centrifuge and spun down to allow cells and other debris to accumulate at the bottom of the sample tube. That debris can then be evaluated under magnification, and this examination can reveal the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria, and crystals.

What is seen under the microscopes magnification can lead to the next steps of assessing the dogs urinary tract disease. For example, if there are crystals in the urine, your veterinarian may recommend radiographs or an ultrasound of the abdomen in order to look for bladder stones.

Recovery And Management Of Flutd

Though improvement of symptoms can occur within days, it is common for FLUTD to come back, so active management will be a lifelong commitment. Medications may only be used long-term in severe cases. Cats that respond well to prescription diets should stay on them indefinitely. You will work with your veterinarian to adjust treatment accordingly.

Sudden changes in your cats environment make it much more likely for symptoms to return. You will need to try to anticipate stressful situations for your cat, such as moving or adding new pets or family members to the household.

While many cats with FLUTD can live a long and happy life, it is not uncommon for treatment to fail. Unfortunately, euthanasia may be considered for cats with pain and anxiety that cannot be controlled.

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Causes Of Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

While anatomical changes, obesity, diet, and genetics can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and bladder stones in cats, feline idiopathic cystitis is a more complicated diagnosis.

Leading studies suggest there is a connection between FLUTD symptoms and stress or perceiving a threat in the environment. Common things that you may not see as stressors might cause a lot of stress for your cat, such as certain scents, noises, and even furniture changes. The source of stress may be more obvious, as wellstray cats outside, new babies, losing a family member, and so on. Were still not sure exactly how these stress events and situations cause physical changes in a cats bladder.

Most, if not all, cases of FIC require some form of environmental management and stress/anxiety relief to resolve the symptoms.

What Drugs Interact With Tobramycin

Acute pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection) – causes, symptoms & pathology

Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctors recommendation.

  • Tobramycin has no known severe interactions with other drugs.
  • Tobramycin has serious interactions with at least 25 different drugs.
  • Tobramycin has moderate interactions with at least 66 different drugs.
  • Tobramycin has mild interactions with at least 72 different drugs.

The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.

It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information. Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.

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What Affects The Amount Of Urine You Produce

The amount of urine you produce depends on many factors, such as the amount of liquid and food you consume and the amount of fluid you lose through sweating and breathing. Certain medicines, medical conditions, and types of food can also affect the amount of urine you produce. Children produce less urine than adults.

Kidney And Ureteral Stones

Ureteral stones are kidney stones that get stuck in one or both ureters. Ureters carry urine from kidneys to the bladder. Ureteral stones can block the flow of the urine and cause severe pain. The larger stones can be problematic as they result in blockage. These stones form due to the chemical imbalance in the urine. Drinking a large number of fluids is highly recommended for the prevention of all kinds of stones.

You will require surgical procedures in some severe cases to remove the large stones. ESWL is one of the most commonly used advanced techniques to cure ureteral stones. Shock wave lithotripsy involves using sound waves to break the stones into smaller pieces. It becomes easy to flush the crushed stones out along with the urine.

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Risk Factors For Recurrent Utis Include:

  • Frequent sexual intercourse, which increases the likelihood of bacteria entering the urethra and bladder.
  • Using spermicide with or without a diaphragm, as this can harm protective bacteria in the urinary tract that defend against infection.
  • Urinary retention or incomplete bladder emptying caused by medications narrowing of the urethra prolapse of the bladder, uterus or vagina neurological conditions or sometimes unknown reasons.
  • Vaginal atrophy, which is a postmenopausal condition caused by decreased estrogen levels.
  • Genetics, especially the inherited genes that regulate the body’s immune response to infections.

It’s common for some people to have bacteria in their urine but not experience any symptoms. In these cases, no treatment is necessary.

Talk with your health care team if you think you have a UTI. You may need an appointment to discuss your symptoms and collect a urine sample.

You should seek medical attention if you develop a fever, chills, disorientation, or back or side pain. These could be signs of a kidney infection, which requires treatment, or a systemic infection of the bloodstream that requires hospitalization.

Urinary Tract Infections And Dementia

Figure 2 from Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of ...

Urinary tract infections are a type of infection common among older people. If a person with a memory impairment or dementia has a UTI, this can cause sudden and severe confusion known as delirium.

  • You are here: Urinary tract infections and dementia
  • Urinary tract infections and dementia

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    Tips To Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

    A urinary tract infection, also called a UTI, is an infection that occurs in the urinary system. This could include the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys. Most infections involve the bladder and urethra, known as the lower urinary tract.

    The most common symptoms include painful urination, tenderness above the bladder area, urgency and frequency of urination. Cloudy and a strong odor are not signs of infection.

    Women are at greater risk for a UTI because the urethra is shorter than in men, so it’s easier for bacteria to travel to the bladder. UTIs also are more common in postmenopausal women because low estrogen levels change vaginal and urethral tissue to increase the risk of infection.

    It’s always better to prevent an infection rather than simply treat it. UTIs are no different.

    Best Budget: Iams Proactive Health Adult Urinary Tract Health Dry Cat Food With Chicken

    Courtesy of Amazon

    Key ingredients: Chicken, chicken by-product meal, ground whole grain corn, corn grits, brewers rice | Calories per Serving: 182 | Balance: Crude Protein min. 32%, Crude Fat min. 15%, Crude Fiber max. 1.7%, Moisture max. 10%, Magnesium max. 0.1% | Life stage: Adult | Texture: Dry small kibble

    • Chicken is the first ingredient

    • No prescription needed

    • Chicken by-product

    • Not grain-free

    Being on a budget doesnt mean your cat has to continue to struggle. Although its not least expensive on the market, IAMSProactive Health Adult Urinary Tract Health Dry Cat Food is well rated and widely available and so prices are competitive and reasonably affordable.

    Chicken is the first ingredient of this food. Thats not the case for many foods that are cheaper. Theres also added vitamin E for a healthy immune system and omega-3 and -6 fatty acids for healthy skin. This food appeals to most cats, even those considered picky eaters. When feeding all dry foods, be sure there is plenty of water available to your cat at all times.

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    Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented Or Avoided

    There are many lifestyle choices that can help you prevent UTIs. These are some of the things you can do to protect yourself from them:

    • Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. For some people, drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. However, if youre taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor may need to adjust your warfarin dose or you may need to have more frequent blood tests.
    • Dont hold your urine. Urinate when you feel like you need to. Some children dont go to the bathroom often enough. If your child does this, teach him or her to go to the bathroom several times each day.
    • Wipe from front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly.
    • Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria.
    • Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if youre a little dry.
    • If you get urinary tract infections often, you may want to avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method. Ask your doctor about other birth control choices.
    • Avoid taking or giving your child bubble baths.
    • Wear loose-fitting clothing , and dress your child in loose-fitting clothing.
    • If you are uncircumcised, wash the foreskin regularly. If you have an uncircumcised boy, teach him how to wash his foreskin.

    Which Cats Are The Most At Risk Of Flutd

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Overview | Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    FLUTD is thought to affect around 1-3% of cats each year, so is among the more common diseases seen. Because of the diverse nature of the underlying causes, cats of any age, breed and gender can be affected by FLUTD, but in general, the disease is more common in:

    • Middle-aged cats
    • Cats which take little exercise
    • Cats with little or no access outside
    • Cats that eat a dry diet

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    Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease And Urethral Blockage: Is My Cat At Risk

    Owners of frisky felines know the joy of cozy purrs and often can depend on their four-legged alarm clock to wake them when its early morning mealtime. Many cat owners also have experienced the frustration of their cat urinating in locations other than their litter box. Although some cats may be seeking revenge for an empty food bowl, it is also possible that changes in your cats elimination habits are an indication they are suffering from a medical problem. Feline lower urinary tract disease is a complex medical condition that can lead to a potentially life-threatening urethral obstruction in some cases. Our Heritage Veterinary Clinic team answers common FLUTD questions to ensure you can recognize signs and risk factors in your cat.

    What is feline lower urinary tract disease in cats?

    FLUTD is a painful complex medical syndrome that affects a cats lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder, urethra, and urinary opening. FLUTD can be challenging to diagnose because of the variety of underlying causes, some of which may never be determined. Cats can be affected by FLUTD at any age. However, indoor, middle-aged, and overweight cats have an increased risk. Changes in your cats environmental or emotional state, including new people, pets, or routines, can be stressful and cause increased anxiety, which is also a FLUTD risk factor. Other risk factors may include:

    What diseases are associated with feline lower urinary tract disease in cats?

    Heritage Veterinary Clinic

    Im Pregnant How Will A Uti Affect My Baby

    If you have a UTI and it isnt treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. Fortunately, asymptomatic bacteriuria and bladder infections are usually found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and properly, it wont hurt your baby.

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    Acute And Chronic Prostatitis

    In the 1800s, prostatitis was thought to be secondary to excessive alcohol consumption or physical or sexual activity. It was often associated with gonorrhea and could be fatal or lead to abscess formation. By the 1920s, most cases were attributed to microorganisms, and antibiotics combined with prostate massage were standard therapy after World War II. Although the role of bacteria was questioned in the 1950s, it was reemphasized in 1968 when Meares and Stamey described their “4-glass test.”

    Acute prostatitis is caused by an acute infection of the entire prostate gland, resulting in fever and localized pain. Microscopically, neutrophilic infiltrates, diffuse edema, and microabscesses may be seen, which may coalesce into larger collections.

    Chronic prostatitis may be caused by inflammatory or noninflammatory diseases. This condition may arise via dysfunctional voiding, intraprostatic reflux, chronic exposure to microorganisms, autoimmune mechanisms, irritative urinary metabolites, and as a variant of neuropathic pain. Chronic bacterial prostatitis often produces few or no symptoms related to the prostate, but it is probably the most common cause of relapsing UTI in men.

    Chronic prostatitis has been subdivided by the National Institutes of Health into the following categories:

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