What To Expect At Home
UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.
Common symptoms include:
- Pain or burning when you urinate
- Needing to urinate more often
- Hard to empty your bladder all the way
- Strong need to empty your bladder
These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.
If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.
About Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are common infections that can affect the bladder, the kidneys and the tubes connected to them.
Anyone can get them, but theyre particularly common in women. Some women experience them regularly .
UTIs can be painful and uncomfortable, but usually pass within a few days and can be easily treated with antibiotics.
This page is about UTIs in adults. There is a separate article about UTIs in children.
This page covers:
Which Antibiotic Will Work Best
Your doctor will take a urine sample to confirm that you have a UTI. Then the lab will grow the germs in a dish for a couple of days to find out which type of bacteria you have. This is called a culture. Itâll tell your doctor what type of germs caused your infection. Theyâll likely prescribe one of the following antibiotics to treat it before the culture comes back:
Which medication and dose you get depends on whether your infection is complicated or uncomplicated.
âUncomplicatedâ means your urinary tract is normal. âComplicatedâ means you have a disease or problem with your urinary tract. You could have a narrowing of your ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder, a narrowing in the urethra which transports urine from the bladder out of the body, or, you might have a blockage like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate . It’s also possible you have a urinary fistula or a bladder diverticulum.
To treat a complicated infection, your doctor might prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If your UTI is severe or the infection is in your kidneys, you might need to be treated in a hospital or doctor’s office with high-dose antibiotics you get through an IV.
Your doctor will also consider these factors when choosing an antibiotic:
- Are you over age 65?
- Are you allergic to any antibiotics?
- Have you had any side effects from antibiotics in the past?
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What Is A Uti
A UTI is a bacterial infection in some part of your urinary system. Your urinary system includes all the organs involved in making and releasing urine :
- Kidneys these filter your blood to remove waste and extra water to make urine .
- Ureter two thin tubes of muscle, one on each side of your bladder, through which urine flows from your kidneys to your bladder.
- Bladder where you store urine until you need to pee.
- Urethra when you pee, urine passes along your urethra, a central tube that carries urine out of your body.
When the infection is just in the bladder and urethra , this is called a lower UTI. If it travels up to affect one or both kidneys as well then it is called an upper UTI. This can be more serious than a lower UTI, as the kidneys can become damaged by the infection.
How To Use Amoxicillin Oral
Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually every 8 or 12 hours. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Drink plenty of fluids while using this medication unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time every day.
Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection.
Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.
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When You Need Themand When You Dont
Antibiotics are medicines that can kill bacteria. Doctors often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections . The main symptoms of UTIs are:
- A burning feeling when you urinate.
- A strong urge to urinate often.
However, many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms. This can do more harm than good. Heres why:
Antibiotics usually dont help when there are no UTI symptoms.
Older people often have some bacteria in their urine. This does not mean they have a UTI. But doctors may find the bacteria in a routine test and give antibiotics anyway.
The antibiotic does not help these patients.
- It does not prevent UTIs.
- It does not help bladder control.
- It does not help memory problems or balance.
Most older people should not be tested or treated for a UTI unless they have UTI symptoms. And if you do have a UTI and get treated, you usually dont need another test to find out if you are cured. You should only get tested or treated if UTI symptoms come back.
Antibiotics have side effects.
Antibiotics can have side effects, such as fever, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, tendon ruptures, and nerve damage.
Antibiotics can cause future problems.
Antibiotics can kill friendly germs in the body. This can lead to vaginal yeast infections. It can also lead to other infections, and severe diarrhea, hospitalization, and even death.
Antibiotics can be a waste of money.
When should older people take antibiotics for a UTI?
Which Antibiotic Will I Be Prescribed
Uncomplicated UTIs are most commonly treated with a three day course of one of two antibiotics: trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin. Trimethoprim works by stopping certain enzymes in bacteria from working, which stops the bacteria from being able to multiply.10 Nitrofurantoin works slightly differently it damages a bacterias DNA to stop it from being able to work properly.
Occasionally, the course of antibiotics you are given wont work for you. This might be because the UTI is caused by an unusual bacteria, because the bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic youve been given, or that the symptoms are caused by something else entirely.
If symptoms remain significant after the three day course of antibiotics, it is advisable to return to your GP they might do more tests to ensure the diagnosis of UTI is definitely correct
Generally, when you visit a healthcare professional with symptoms suggestive of a UTI, urine will be tested in whats called a dipstick test this is a fast test which can show whether certain cells and components which may indicate infection are present in the urine. If this test is positive and symptoms are suggestive of a UTI, the urine sample probably wont be sent off to the labs for further testing, as there is no real need for this.11
Read Also: How Do I Get Rid Of A Urinary Tract Infection
What Do Utis In Dogs Look Like
UTIs can be hard to spot, which is why you should always take note of your pups potty habits. If your dog is attempting to pee small amounts every time you take them outside, needs to go more often, straining or crying when urinating, or having accidents in the house even when they are potty trained, it could be a sign of a UTI. The most obvious and alarming symptom is blood mixed in with your dogs urine if you notice this, you should call your vet immediately.
Antibiotic Warnings And Treatment Concerns
The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs are similar in efficacy. But its important to note that ampicillin, amoxicillin, and sulfonamides are no longer the drugs of choice for combatting UTIs because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In addition, amoxicillin and clavulanate has been shown in previous research to be significantly less effective than others when it comes to treating urinary tract infections.
Also, as noted above, the FDA advises against using fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated UTIs. These medicines should only be considered if no other treatment options are available. In some cases, such as a complicated UTI or kidney infection, a healthcare provider may decide that a fluoroquinolone medicine is the best option, notes the American Academy of Family Physicians.
For pregnant women, some common antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, should not be prescribed because of possible toxic effects on the fetus. But oral nitrofurantoin and cephalexin are considered good antibiotic choices for pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis, according to past research.
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Is Uti Common After Spinal Cord Injury
Yes. Here are 3 of the more common reasons people with SCI develop UTIs.
1. Most people lose normal urinary function after SCI. They need a bladder management option to empty the urine from their bladder to keep their bladder and kidneys healthy. Most bladder management options make it easier for bacteria to enter the bladder through the urethra.
- Please read Bladder Management Options Following Spinal Cord Injuryâ to learn more about normal urinary function, how it changes after SCI, and bladder management options.
2. Most people lose normal bowel function after SCI, and contact with stool is common during bowel management. Stool has bacteria that can cause a UTI. UTIs are often caused when bacteria from stool gets into the bladder when the bladder is being emptied.
- Please read Bowel Function after Spinal Cord Injury to learn more about normal bowel function, how it changes after SCI, and bowel management options.
3. Once in the bladder, bacteria are hard to get rid of. People with normal bladder function can usually get rid of most bacteria by fully emptying their bladder when they urinate. However, many people with SCI cant fully empty their bladder, even with good bladder management. This allows bacteria to stay in the bladder almost all of the time, making it easier for a UTI to develop.
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Carefully Targeted Antibiotic Treatment For Urinary Tract Infections
So what do we do now? As a society and as individuals, we should reduce and carefully target antibiotic use. Both physicians and patients should be aware of the grave potential to lose effective antibiotics for all infections even simple UTIs. Its an opportunity that empowers individuals to have informed conversations with their doctors. Every time your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, ask: Do I need this? Why? Is there an antibiotic-free alternative? Talking about it might be enough to meaningfully reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
If youre having UTI symptoms like burning with urination, more frequent urination, bloody or cloudy urine, low abdominal pain, or fever, you should see a medical provider to get tested. Youll have to urinate into a container and the medical office will test for products of bacterial metabolism. Make sure to tell your provider if youve had UTIs before, and what antibiotic you took. If you have a history of antibiotic-resistant infections, share that, too. There are alternatives to Cipro and Bactrim, but antibiotic choices are limited.
If antibiotic resistance continues to grow, more people will need intravenous treatment for UTIs we used to cure with simple oral antibiotic courses. Were also likely to see more complications, like kidney infections and sepsis, arising from ineffective treatment.
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Antibiotic Overuse Leads To Antibiotic Resistance
At some point, most people have taken a course of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or ciprofloxacin , two common antibiotics used for UTIs. However, in the last few years it has become clear that the likelihood these antibiotics will kill most UTIs is dropping rapidly. You may have read the recent, frightening New York Timesarticle reporting one in three uncomplicated UTIs in young healthy women are Bactrim-resistant and one in five are resistant to five other common antibiotics. Pretty scary, since we used to feel confident that writing a prescription for Bactrim was a sure recipe for cure.
How is it that we are losing the antibiotic war with bacteria? Though many things drive bacterial resistance, giving antibiotics to animals and antibiotic overuse in humans top the list.
We use a lot of antibiotics in humans too much, and not always for the right reasons. When we prescribe antibiotics for viral illnesses like a cold, the flu, or common sinusitis, we create a massive shift in the bodys bacteria for no good reason .
Interactions Between Bactrim And Other Medications
Bactrim may interact with certain medications or supplements. Always let your doctor and pharmacist know about any other medications or supplements that you are currently taking. The list below does not include all possible drug interactions with Bactrim . Please note that only the generic name of each medication is listed below.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
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Who Gets Urinary Tract Infections
Anyone can. But they’re more likely when you:
- Have had UTIs before
- Have a condition that affects your bladder’s nerves
- Have been through menopause
- Have something that blocks the passage of urine, such as a tumor, kidney stone, or an enlarged prostate
- Use a diaphragm or spermicide for birth control
- Have a catheter, a tube placed into the bladder to drain urine from the bladder into a bag outside the body
- Are a man who has sex with men, has HIV, or hasnât been circumcised
Most of these traits also raise the odds that a simple bladder infection may become a more serious kidney infection or turn into . For pregnant women, a kidney infection can lead to delivering a baby too early.
Latest Antibiotics For Utis
- Vabomere is a combination carbapenem antibiotic and beta-lactamase inhibitor. Vabomere was first approved in August of 2017.
- Vabomere is used for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections due to susceptible Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae species complex.
- Vabomere is given as an intravenous infusion every 8 hours. Dosage adjustments are required in patients with varying degrees of kidney impairment.
- Zemdri is an aminoglycoside antibacterial for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Zemdri was first approved in February of 2015.
- Zemdri is used against certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. Zemdri is an intravenous infusion, administered once daily.
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To Prevent Urinary Tract Infections Some Doctors Recommend That People Drink Which Liquid
Cranberry juice has long been touted as a home remedy of choice to prevent urinary tract infections. The active ingredient in cranberries, A-type proanthocyanidins , has been shown to block bacteria from adhering to the wall of the bladder. However, it takes an extremely large concentration of cranberry to accomplish this, a concentration not found in typical juices we drink. Further, any concentration of these PACs is long gone by the time it reaches the bladder. Drinking cranberry juice may help hydrate you, which can help wash bacteria from your body, but water can accomplish the same thing. Drinking cranberry juice wont hurt, but it probably wont help either.
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Causes Of A Bladder Infection
Bladder infections are not contagious. You cant get one from someone else, from a toilet seat, or from sharing a bath.
The most common cause of bladder infections is bacteria from the bowels. The bacteria get onto the skin around the opening of the urethra. From there they can get into the urine and travel up to the bladder. This causes inflammation and an infection. This often happens because of:
An enlarged prostate
Poor cleaning of the genitals
Procedures that put a tube in your bladder, such as a Foley catheter
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Why Does My Dog Throw Up At 3am
Vomiting is usually seen in the morning or late night just before eating, especially in dogs that are fed once daily. This might be due to prolonged periods between meals, or to related stomach inactivity, which aggravates the bile reflux. This condition is commonly seen in older dogs but can occur at any age.
Recovery And Management Of Utis In Cats
Most cats will fully recover within 7-10 days of developing a urinary tract infection, but they may need to remain on a canned diet for longer. Your vet may check a urine sample after treatment to determine if all the bacteria are gone.
Occasionally, cats will develop repeated urinary tract infections. Cats with recurring UTIs often require more testing to determine the underlying cause.
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