Kidney And Urinary System Parts And Their Functions
Two kidneys. This pair of purplish-brown organs is located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:
Remove waste products and medicines from the body
Balance the body’s fluids
Balance a variety of electrolytes
Release hormones to control blood pressure
Release a hormone to control red blood cell production
Help with bone health by controlling calcium and phosphorus
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
How Do Kidneys Keep The Right Amount Of Water In The Body
Kidneys make about 1-2 litres of urine everyday and they keep the water level in your body perfectly balanced.
If you drink a lot with no or less exercise, you will need to urinate more. This is because when you drink too much, your kidneys make watery urine to get rid of any excess.
More you exercise less urine your kidneys will make. This is because, you lose more body fluid in sweat.
How Does Blood Flow Through My Kidneys
Blood flows into your kidney through the renalartery. This large blood vessel branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.
Your blood circulates through your kidneys many times a day. In a single day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts become urine.
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How Is Chronic Kidney Disease Detected
Early detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease are the keys to keeping kidney disease from progressing to kidney failure. Some simple tests can be done to detect early kidney disease. They are:
It is especially important that people who have an increased risk for chronic kidney disease have these tests. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you:
- are older
What Are Functions Of Kidney
What are the two main functions of the kidneys?
The kidneys perform many crucial functions, including:
- maintaining overall fluid balance.
- regulating and filtering minerals from blood.
- filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances.
- creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure.
What is the function of the kidneys in the urinary system?
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How Do My Kidneys Work
Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubule returns needed substances to your blood and removes wastes.
How Does The Urinary System Clean My Blood
Your kidneys are an essential part of filtering your blood. Heres how the urinary system works:
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The Tubule Returns Needed Substances To Your Blood And Removes Wastes
A blood vessel runs alongside the tubule. As the filtered fluid moves along the tubule, the blood vessel reabsorbs almost all of the water, along with minerals and nutrients your body needs. The tubule helps remove excess acid from the blood. The remaining fluid and wastes in the tubule become urine.
Urinary System Organs And Urinary System Structures
The main urinary system organs and other urinary system structures are the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. These form a sterile environment which is protected against the non-sterile outside world, provide the forces necessary to expel urine through a series of organs, and respond to sensitive involuntary and voluntary nervous stimulation.
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What Are The Parts Of The Urinary Tract
People usually have two kidneys, but can live a normal, healthy life with just one. The kidneys are under the ribcage in the back, one on each side. Each adult kidney is about the size of a fist.
Each kidney has an outer layer called the cortex, which contains filtering units. The center part of the kidney, the medulla , has fan-shaped structures called pyramids. These drain urine into cup-shaped tubes called calyxes .
From the calyxes, pee travels out of the kidneys through the ureters to be stored in the bladder . When a person urinates, the pee exits the bladder and goes out of the body through the urethra , another tube-like structure. The male urethra ends at the tip of the penis the female urethra ends just above the vaginal opening.
What Is The Urinary System
The urinary system contains the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. These organs work together primarily to create, store and eliminate waste, namely urine.
In order to function properly, the human body extracts nutrients from food and uses them to produce energy and repair damages. Once food has been broken down and the body has retrieved what it needs, waste products stay behind in the bowel and the blood until they are removed via the urinary system. Successfully ridding the body of waste is essential to maintaining optimal health. That’s the job of the urinary system: Its construction is relatively simple, but the processes that occur within it are complex and vital to health and well-being.
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What Is The Main Function Of The Urinary System
Thereof, which are functions of the urinary system?
Kidney and urinary system parts and their functions:
- Two kidneys. This pair of purplish-brown organs is located below the ribs toward the middle of the back.
- Two ureters. These narrow tubes carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
What are the four functions of the urinary system?
Urinary System Anatomy and Function
- Kidneys. There are a pair of kidneys that are purplish-brown and are located below the ribs in the middle of the back.
- Two Ureters. Each kidney has a narrow tube called a ureter, which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
What is the functional unit of the kidneys?
What Causes Problems In The Urinary System
Problems in the urinary system can be caused by aging, illness, or injury. As you get older, changes in the kidneys structure cause them to lose some of their ability to remove wastes from the blood. Also, the muscles in your ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. You may have more urinary infections because the bladder muscles do not tighten enough to empty your bladder completely. A decrease in strength of muscles of the sphincters and the pelvis can also cause incontinence, the unwanted leakage of urine. Illness or injury can also prevent the kidneys from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine.
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Physiology Of The Urinary System
Every day, the kidneys filter gallons of fluid from the bloodstream. The normal physiology that takes place in the urinary system are as follows:
Urine formation is a result of three processes:
- Glomerular filtration. Water and solutes smaller than proteins are forced through the capillary walls and pores of the glomerular capsule into the renal tubule.
- Tubular reabsorption. Water, glucose, amino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood.
- Tubular secretion. Hydrogen, potassium, creatinine, and drugs are removed from the peritubular blood and secreted by the tubule cells into the filtrate.
Characteristics of Urine
In 24 hours, the marvelously complex kidneys filter some 150 to 180 liters of blood plasma through their glomeruli into the tubules.
Micturition or voiding is the act of emptying the bladder.
Who Can Help Me With A Urinary Problem
Your primary doctor can help you with some urinary problems. Your pediatrician may be able to treat some of your childs urinary problems. But some problems may require the attention of a urologist, a doctor who specializes in treating problems of the urinary system and the male reproductive system. A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system and may be able to help with some urinary problems. A urogynecologist is a gynecologist who specializes in the female urinary system. A nephrologist specializes in treating diseases of the kidney.
How Common Are These Conditions
The most common urinary issues are bladder infections and urinary tract infections . UTIs are more common in women than in men. More than 60% of women will get a UTI in their lifetime.
About half of women over 65 experience urinary incontinence, usually because of stretched muscles from pregnancy and childbirth. Kidney stones are also fairly common, occurring in about 1 in every 10 people.
Controlling Less Water Levels
The kidneys work together with the brain to control the bodys water level. The brain releases a hormone that makes the kidneys save water, when the water level is low.
- The brain monitors the water level in blood.
- If the water level is low, the pituitary gland releases the hormone ADH.
- ADH travels to your kidneys in your blood.
- Your kidneys save water, making your urine stronger.
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How Do Kidneys Filter And Clean Blood And Produce Urine
The kidneys clean your blood that flows in and out of the kidneys through their large blood vessels.
There are two types of blood vessels connected to each kidney
Renal artery supplies the kidney with blood.
Renal vein carries the blood filtered by the kidney.
Urine dribbles away through the tubes called the ureters connected to each kidney.
Diseases Affecting Function Of Urinary System
Diseases of the urinary system can seriously hamper one’s lifestyle, and different specialists focus on diseases affecting different parts. Here are a few of them:
1. Urinary Tract Infection
A urinary tract infection, as the name suggests, is an infection caused by bacteria in the urinary tract. The effect of it can spread to other parts like the kidneys, bladder and urethra. It is treated with a course of antibiotics and is more likely to occur in women than in men.
This condition results in the leakage of urine from the urinary system. It can be caused by a prolapse in the pelvic region or after a vaginal delivery. Treatment for this condition can be done with physical therapy, pelvic mesh surgery, medicines or vaginal laser surgery.
3. Interstitial Cystitis
This chronic condition is seen mostly in women. The cause for interstitial cystitis has not yet been determined but it can halt the normal function of urinary system by leading to pain in the bladder and pelvis. The bladder may be scarred and less elastic due to this disease. Damage is also seen in the protective covering of the bladder, known as epithelium.
This occurs in the prostate gland hence this disease is limited to the male urinary system. Advanced age can cause the gland to swell, leading to pressure on the bladder and pain while urinating. Other symptoms are an increase in frequency of urination and pelvic pain.
5. Kidney Stone
6. Kidney Failure
7. Bladder Cancer
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What Affects The Amount Of Urine You Produce
The amount of urine you produce depends on many factors, such as the amount of liquid and food you consume and the amount of fluid you lose through sweating and breathing. Certain medicines, medical conditions, and types of food can also affect the amount of urine you produce. Children produce less urine than adults.
How Are Problems In The Urinary System Detected
Urinalysis is a test that studies the content of urine for abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection. This test involves urinating into a special container and leaving the sample to be studied. Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. Your doctor may want to do a urodynamic test if you are having symptoms that suggest problems with the muscles or nerves of your lower urinary system and pelvisureters, bladder, urethra, and sphincter muscles. Urodynamic tests measure the contraction of the bladder muscle as it fills and empties. The test is done by inserting a small tube called a catheter through your urethra into your bladder to fill it either with water or a gas. Another small tube is inserted into your rectum or vagina to measure the pressure put on your bladder when you strain or cough. Other bladder tests use x-ray dye instead of water so that x-ray pictures can be taken when the bladder fills and empties to detect any abnormalities in the shape and function of the bladder. These tests take about an hour.
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What Is Urinary Bladder
The urinary bladder is a stretchy, muscular bag. It has a waterproof lining to stop it leaking.
Collecting and storing urine until you are ready to visit the toilet.
Urine trickles out of each kidney, all day long, passes through the ureters into the bladder. The bladder stretches as it fills up. This sends a signal to your brain, making you want to go to the toilet. Urine flow out of the urethra when the sphincter muscles in the bladder open.
Absent And Ectopic Kidneys
Kidneys form in many ectopic ways. Many of the variations in kidney locations are asymptomatic, however they can similarly be associated with other anomalies. One in 1200 individuals has an absent kidney, which is produced by failure of the metanephric blastemal to join the ureteric bud on the affected side. While there are seldom conditions associated, it is often associated with loss of ipsilateral genital vessels/features . Furthermore 1 in 400 individuals has a horseshoe shaped kidney. Similar abnormal configurations include:
- inferior and superior ectopia
- L-shaped kidney
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How Does Urination Occur
To urinate, your brain signals the sphincters to relax. Then it signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine through the urethra and out of your bladder.
How often you need to urinate depends on how quickly your kidneys produce the urine that fills the bladder and how much urine your bladder can comfortably hold. The muscles of your bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine, and the sphincter muscles remain contracted to keep urine in the bladder. As your bladder fills up, signals sent to your brain tell you to find a toilet soon.
Diseases Of The Urinary System
Different specialists treat urinary system ailments. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases, while urologists treat problems with the urinary tract, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder and urethra, according to the American Urological Association . Urologists also treat the male reproductive organs, while gynecologists often treat urinary diseases or disorders in females, including yeast infections. Nephrologists and urologists often work with endocrinologists or oncologists, depending on the disease.
Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract they can affect the urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. While UTIs are more common in women, they can occur in men. UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics, according to Dr. Oscar Aguirre, a urogynecologist in Denver. In the United States, about 8.1 million people have a urinary tract infection each year, according to the American Urological Association.
Incontinence is another common disease of the urinary system. “The most common bladder problems I see in my practice in women are frequent urges to urinate and leakage of urine,” said S. Adam Ramin, urologic surgeon and founder of Urology Cancer Specialists in Los Angeles. “The most common bladder problems in men are frequent urination at nights and incomplete bladder emptying. This is usually due to an enlarged prostate causing obstruction of bladder emptying.”
Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science contributor.
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Description Of The Urinary System
The urinary system works with the lungs, skin and intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body. Adults eliminate about 27 to 68 fluid ounces per day based on typical daily fluid intake of 68 ounces , National Institutes of Health . Other factors in urinary system function include fluid lost through perspiring and breathing. In addition, certain types of medications, such as diuretics that are sometimes used to treat high blood pressure, can also affect the amount of urine a person produces and eliminates. Some beverages, such as coffee and alcohol, can also cause increased urination in some people.
The primary organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, which are bean-shaped organs that are located just below the rib cage in the middle of the back. The kidneys remove urea waste product formed by the breakdown of proteins from the blood through small filtering units called nephrons, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes, called ureters, to the bladder. The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long , according to the Cleveland Clinic.