Monday, October 3, 2022

How Urinary Tract Infection Is Transmitted

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Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti

Is a Urinary Tract Infection an STD? | STDs

Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:

  • Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
  • Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.

Prevention Of A Urinary Tract Infection

  • Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary.
  • Drink lots of fluids to flush the urinary system. Water is best.
  • Urinate as soon as you feel the need rather than holding on.
  • For women and girls, wipe your bottom from front to back to prevent bacteria from around the anus entering the urethra.
  • Urinate shortly after sex to flush away bacteria that might have entered your urethra during sex.
  • Wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes so that air can keep the area dry. Avoid tight- fitting clothes and nylon underwear, which trap moisture and can help bacteria grow.
  • Using a diaphragm or spermicide for birth control can lead to UTIs by increasing bacteria growth. Unlubricated condoms or spermicidal condoms increase irritation, which may help bacteria grow. Consider switching to lubricated condoms without spermicide or using a non-spermicidal lubricant.

The Link Between Utis And Sex: Causes And How To Prevent Them

One common way women get urinary tract infections is by having sex. But that doesn’t mean you have to banish sex from your life to prevent painful infections.

Mosuno/Stocksy

Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections arent the only consequences of having sex. For some women, a urinary tract infection can also be a result.

Blame it on anatomy, which makes a UTI more likely for women than for men, says Sujata Yavagal, MD, a urogynecologist at Baptist Health South Florida in Miami.

Still, it isnt inevitable that having sex will cause a UTI. Taking proper precautions can minimize your odds.

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Are Urinary Tract Infections Contagious

Are urinary tract infections contagious? The answer will depend on what microbe infects your urinary tract. Your urinary tract contains the bladder, urethra, ureters, and kidneys, and each of them can be infected with various microbesanother word for bacteria.

There are different types of urinary tract infections. An infection in the bladder is called cystitis, or a lower urinary tract infection. Cystitis symptoms will include frequent and painful urination, blood in the urine, abdominal pain, and pelvic pain.

A urethra infection is called urethritis, and symptoms will include pain in your side and upper back, nausea and vomiting, chills and shaking, and a high fever. Both viruses, like herpes simplex, and bacteria cause urethritis. When bacteria travels to the ureters and infects the kidneys, this is an upper urinary tract infection, or pyelonephritis. Signs of a kidney infection include burning when urinating and discharge.

Urethritis, and lower and upper UTIs are almost never contagious from person to person. However, some people assume there is a connection between a UTI and STDalso called a sexually transmitted diseasewhich are contagious and transferred during sex.

While UTIs are often not transmitted by sex, you may think they are, especially if you get your UTI after sex. That being said, sexually active women and both men and women who have anal sex are more likely to develop a UTI.

Appendix 1 Point Of Care Urine Collection Prior To Urine Culture1

Home Remedies For

Urine Collection

Upon rising or at any time, collect urine in the C& S container provided.

  • Wash and dry hands.
  • Begin urinating into the toilet. Without stopping the flow of urine, place the container in the urine stream to collect some urine and remove the container before the urine stops flowing.
  • Close the container tightly, taking care not to touch the rim or the inside of the container with your fingers.
  • Labelling:

  • Label the container with your name, date of birth, and the date of collection.
  • Packaging:

  • Place the container in the bag provided and securely close the bag.
  • Fold any paperwork and place in the external pocket of the specimen transport bag.
  • This ensures the specimen will not leak onto the paperwork.
  • Storage and Transport:

  • Refrigerate and bring specimen to the laboratory within one hour of collection.
  • References:

    Organism

    The report only includes organisms suspected to be uropathogens . This depends on patient demographics, concentration of the specific organism and the specific laboratory protocol. In urine with multiple organisms, identification may not be performed as it may produce misleading results that are not related to the UTI.

    Antibiotic susceptibilities

    The report only includes antibiotics that can be used for UTI. The specific antibiotics listed depend on the patient demographics, documented antibiotics and allergies, organism identified, colony count of the organism and the specific laboratory protocol.

    References:

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    What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

    Urinary tract infections are infections that affect the bladder or the kidneys in the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, the bladder, the ureters, and the urethra.

    Both bladder and kidney infections are more common in women than men.

    What Are Symptoms of a Urinary Tract Infection ?

    Symptoms of bladder infections include:

    • Pain or a burning on urination
    • Urinary urgency
    • Lower abdominal discomfort

    Symptoms of kidney infections can include the symptoms of bladder infections as well as:

    • Pain in the flank

    If you have symptoms of a kidney infection, see a doctor right away because serious complications can occur if treatment is delayed.

    Diagnosis Of A Urinary Tract Infection

    A doctor may diagnose a UTI based on the symptoms. A simple test in the doctors surgery can provide evidence to support the diagnosis of a UTI. Sometimes a urine sample is sent to the laboratory for microscopy and culture to identify the specific cause of the infection and to help determine the correct antibiotic for treatment

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    What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection

    Urinary tract infections are caused when bacteria get into the urethra and travel up into the urinary tract.

    Risk factors for developing UTIs include:

    • Frequent sexual intercourse
    • Bladder or kidney infection that occurred in the past 12 months
    • Conditions such as kidney stones or ureteral reflux that block or change the flow of urine in the kidneys
    • Use of spermicides for birth control
    • A genetic predisposition to UTIs
    • Not being circumcised or having insertive anal sex

    Can Urinary Tract Infection Be Cured

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Overview | Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Antibiotics are an effective treatment for UTIs. However, the body can often resolve minor, uncomplicated UTIs on its own without the help of antibiotics. By some estimates, 2542 percent of uncomplicated UTI infections clear on their own. In these cases, people can try a range of home remedies to speed up recovery.

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    Does Cranberry Juice Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

    Many people say that cranberry juice can help treat, or even prevent, a UTI. Researchers are currently looking into the topic, but havent found a definitive answer yet. Healthcare providers recommend drinking lots of fluids if you have, or have a history of getting, a UTI. Adding a glass of unsweetened cranberry juice to your diet isnt a proven way to prevent a UTI, but it typically wont hurt you either.

    It Can Introduce New Bacteria

    Sexual activity is one of the most common ways bacteria get into the urinary tract. Ninety percent of UTIs are the result of Escherichia coli bacteria that have found their way into the urethra and beyond.

    E. coli bacteria are most often found in the gastrointestinal tract or feces. These bacteria may move from the anus or GI tract onto you or your partners hands, mouth, genitals, or a sex toy.

    Sex can also push bacteria further into your body through penetration, which sets up a higher likelihood of an infection. If you already have a UTI, penetration may reinfect you or introduce a new source of bacteria. This can lead to a longer recovery time.

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    Table 1 Symptoms/signs Of Uti Used For Classification

    Cystitis18,21,22

    • Catheterized patients usually do not manifest symptoms of cystitis. Instead, monitor for symptoms of complicated UTI.16

    No testing required if symptoms of UTI or systemic infection are absent6,16

    If patient is symptomatic, collect urine for culture after removal of old catheter or from a newly inserted catheter.16

    Catheters can be colonized with bacteria after 24 hours of insertion, and 100% are colonized within 1 month.5,16

    Urinary Tract Infection: Can It Be Transmitted During Sex

    Pyuria

    Dr. Akl explains if a urinary tract infection can be spread to another during sexual intercourse and shares how a doctor can differentiate between a UTI and a sexually transmitted disease .

    Dr. Akl:Sexual intercourse can increase the risk of developing urinary tract infections by introducing bacteria from the vagina into the urethra and the bladder. However, urinary tract infections are not a sexually transmitted disease. You can still develop urinary tract infections even if you are not having sexual intercourse.

    As a physician, to differential between a urinary tract infection and a sexually transmitted disease the appropriate tests are done in the office. For example, for a urinary tract infection a urine culture and sensitivity is done. For a sexually transmitted disease, vaginal and cervical cultures are done to rule out a sexual transmitted disease.

    Read Also: Can Cranberry Juice Cure A Urinary Tract Infection

    Antibiotics For A Uti

    The form of antibiotic used to treat a bacterial UTI usually depends on which part of the tract is involved.

    Lower tract UTIs can usually be treated with oral antibiotics. Upper tract UTIs require intravenous antibiotics. These antibiotics are put directly into your veins.

    Sometimes, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. To reduce your risk of antibiotic resistance, your doctor will likely put you on the shortest treatment course possible. Treatment typically lasts no more than 1 week.

    Results from your urine culture can help your doctor select an antibiotic treatment that will work best against the type of bacteria thats causing your infection.

    Treatments other than antibiotics for bacterial UTIs are being examined. At some point, UTI treatment without antibiotics may be an option for bacterial UTIs by using cell chemistry to change the interaction between the body and the bacteria.

    There are no home remedies that can cure a UTI, but there are some things that you can do that can help your medication work better.

    These home remedies for UTIs, like drinking more water, may help your body clear the infection faster.

    How Is It Diagnosed

    Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You may have lab tests of your urine and discharge from the urethra and prostate gland.

    For serious or repeated infections, you may need:

    • An intravenous pyelogram . An IVP is a special type of X-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
    • An ultrasound scan to look at the urinary tract.
    • A cystoscopy. This is an exam of the inside of the urethra and bladder with a small lighted instrument. It is usually done by a specialist called a urologist.

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    What Is The Urinary Tract

    The urinary tract makes and stores urine, one of the body’s liquid waste products. The urinary tract includes the following parts:

    • Kidneys: These small organs are located on back of your body, just above the hips. They are the filters of your body removing waste and water from your blood. This waste becomes urine.
    • Ureters: The ureters are thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to your bladder.
    • Bladder: A sac-like container, the bladder stores your urine before it leaves the body.
    • Urethra: This tube carries the urine from your bladder to the outside of the body.

    Increasing Worsening Or Changing Symptoms

    Your Healthy Family: Risks of urinary tract infections in older men

    If any of your symptoms increase, worsen or change from the normal UTI symptoms, it might be an STD instead. If symptoms start to include ones like discharge or smell, its far more likely to be one of the most common STDs instead.

    For any repeated urinary tract infections that appear to keep coming back, see your doctor: There are many things that can cause repeated UTIs. The same is true for any symptoms that can point to more than just an STD: Again, see your doctor.

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    Organs Of The Urinary Tract

    The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters , bladder, and urethra. These organs may be injured by blunt force or by penetrating force . Injuries may also occur unintentionally during surgery.

    UTIs are usually classified as upper or lower according to where they occur along the urinary tract, although it is sometimes difficult or impossible for doctors to make such a determination:

    Some doctors also consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower UTIs. In paired organs , infection can occur in one or both organs. UTIs can occur in children Urinary Tract Infection in Children A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder , the kidneys , or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger… read more as well as in adults.

    Can I Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

    You can usually prevent a urinary tract infection with lifestyle changes. These tips can include:

    In some post-menopausal women, a healthcare provider may suggest an estrogen-containing vaginal cream. This may reduce the risk of developing a UTI by changing the pH of the vagina. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have recurrent UTIs and have already gone through menopause.

    Over-the-counter supplements are also available for UTIs. These are sometimes recommended for people who have frequent UTIs as another way to prevent them. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting any supplements and ask if these could be a good choice for you.

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    How Are Urinary Tract Infections Treated

    You will need to treat a urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria and fight an infection. Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Your healthcare provider will pick a drug that best treats the particular bacteria thats causing your infection. Some commonly used antibiotics can include:

    • Nitrofurantoin.
    • Doxycycline.
    • Quinolones .

    Its very important that you follow your healthcare providers directions for taking the medicine. Dont stop taking the antibiotic because your symptoms go away and you start feeling better. If the infection is not treated completely with the full course of antibiotics, it can return.

    If you have a history of frequent urinary tract infections, you may be given a prescription for antibiotics that you would take at the first onset of symptoms. Other patients may be given antibiotics to take every day, every other day, or after sexual intercourse to prevent the infection. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment option for you if you have a history of frequent UTIs.

    When Should I Refer To A Specialist

    Urinary Tract Infection in Children

    Referral to a specialist is recommended for these cases:

  • All lower urinary tract symptoms in men, especially if they have the following characteristics: bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms that have not responded to conservative management or drug treatment lower urinary tract symptoms complicated by recurrent or persistent UTIs, retention, or renal impairment that is suspected to be caused by lower urinary tract dysfunction and suspected urological cancer.

  • UTIs in the paediatric age group with the following characteristics: infants aged under three months with a possible UTI and infants and children aged three months or older with acute pyelonephritis/upper UTI.

  • UTIs with the following characteristics: severe symptoms failed medical therapy evidence of retention and abnormalities detected on ultrasonography or cytology, such as calculi or bladder tumour.

  • Recurrent UTIs with the following characteristics: risk factors for complicated UTI are present a surgically correctable cause is suspected and a diagnosis of UTI is uncertain for recurrent lower urinary tract symptoms.

  • You prescribed a course of antibiotics and advised Yvonne to return if her symptoms did not improve after three days. Yvonne brought her mother to see you two weeks later for a cough and mentioned that your treatment for her cystitis had worked very well.

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    What Causes Utis

    Its pretty easy to get a urinary tract infection. Bacteria that live in the vagina, genital, and anal areas may enter the urethra, travel to the bladder, and cause an infection. This can happen during sexual activity when bacteria from your partners genitals, anus, fingers, or sex toys gets pushed into your urethra. UTIs can also be caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, or other organisms.

    Although UTIs arent spread from one person to another like STDs, having sex can lead to or worsen UTIs. But you dont have to have sex to get a UTI. Anything that brings bacteria in contact with your urethra can cause a UTI.

    Youre more likely to get a UTI if you

    • have had one before

    • use spermicides or a diaphragm

    • have kidney stones or other obstructions in your urinary tract

    Most people arent able to pinpoint the exact cause of their UTI because so many things can lead to it.

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