Staph Infection And Water Contamination
Staph is the resident flora of the human skin, meaning that it normally resides on the skin but does not cause disease. Staph is a gram-positive bacteria entering the human body through cuts, abrasions, or by coming in contact with the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, and nostrils causing disease and infection. Most strains of staph can be treated with standard antibiotic therapy, but there are an increasing number of infections that are resistant to antibiotics. Staph infections can be transmitted in vectors such as the hands of health workers and in contaminated water and other materials.
Until the advent of modern antibiotic therapy, medical professionals had few options when treating staph infections. They were limited to supporting the body’s immune system in its fight against the bacteria and encouraging healthy behaviors like drinking plenty of clean water and eating the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables.
What Is The Prognosis For A Person With A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections typically respond very well to treatment. A UTI can be uncomfortable before you start treatment, but once your healthcare provider identifies the type of bacteria and prescribes the right antibiotic medication, your symptoms should improve quickly. Its important to keep taking your medication for the entire amount of time your healthcare provider prescribed. If you have frequent UTIs or if your symptoms arent improving, your provider may test to see if its an antibiotic-resistant infection. These are more complicated infections to treat and may require intravenous antibiotics or alternative treatments.
Why Antibiotics Sometimes Dont Work
Most UTIs arent serious. But if left untreated, the infection can spread up to the kidneys and bloodstream and become life threatening. Kidney infections can lead to kidney damage and kidney scarring.
Symptoms of a UTI usually improve within 2 to 3 days after starting antibiotic therapy. Many doctors prescribe an antibiotic for at least 3 days.
While this type of medication is the standard treatment, researchers are noticing that antibiotic-resistant bacteria are reducing the effectiveness of some antibiotics in treating UTIs.
Some UTIs dont clear up after antibiotic therapy. When an antibiotic medication doesnt stop the bacteria from causing an infection, the bacteria continue to multiply.
The overuse or misuse of antibiotics is often the reason for antibiotic resistance. This can happen when the same antibiotic is prescribed over and over again for recurrent UTIs. Because of this risk, experts have been looking for ways to treat UTIs without antibiotics.
Some research has shown that UTIs can be treated without traditional antibiotics by targeting E. colis surface component for adhesion, FimH.
Typically, the urinary tract flushes away bacteria when you urinate. But according to researchers, FimH can cause E. coli to firmly attach to the cells in the urinary tract. And because of this tight grip, its hard for the body to naturally flush the bacteria from the urinary tract.
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Home Remedy For Urinary Tract Infection And Dietary Supplements
Though the traditional clinical method for treating urinary tract infections has been antibiotics, there are other remedies and supplements that can help to treat an infection. These supplements can help to stave off another occurrence of a UTI in the future. A general strengthening of the immune system as well as managing urine toxicity will help to prevent UTIs from getting the upper hand.
Leptospirosis Risk In Outdoor Activities
People who enjoy outdoor activities where freshwater or wet soil are encountered may be at risk for leptospirosis. This includes swimming, kayaking, rafting and canoeing in freshwater, hiking and camping. Learn how to help prevent infection and stay safe outdoors.
Leptospirosis is a disease caused by Leptospira bacterial species. These bacteria are carried in the urine of infected animals such as rodents, pigs, cattle, dogs, and many wildlife species. If urine from an infected animal is deposited or drains into a body of fresh water or soil, the bacteria can survive there for weeks to months.
Leptospirosis exists worldwide, but it is more likely to be found in tropical climates. The risk of infection is higher after a heavy rain or flooding.
People may come into close contact with fresh water or wet soil when they participate in outdoor activities. If the water or soil was contaminated with bacteria that cause leptospirosis, that person could be at risk for developing the disease. The bacteria can enter the body through the eyes, nose, mouth or skin cuts and abrasions. Prolonged immersion in or swallowing of contaminated water can increase the risk of infection. Direct contact with the urine, other bodily fluids, or tissues of infected animals can also lead to infection, as well as ingestion of food or water contaminated by Leptospira.
Head out and enjoy the great outdoors this summer, and take it all injust not leptospirosis.
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Cut Back On Meat And Poultry
Some studies, such as one published in August 2018 in the journal mBio, have linked contaminated poultry and meat to E.coli bacteria strains that can cause UTIs. These studies havent proven that eating meat or poultry causes UTIs. In fact, some E.coli can live in the intestines without causing any problems. However, bacteria from the gut can enter the urinary tract and cause infection. This risk is greater in women than men, because women have shorter urethras than men, meaning the bacteria has less distance to travel to reach the bladder.
Cutting back on meat and focusing on fruits and veggies may slightly cut your risk of UTIs. According to a study of Buddhists in Taiwan, published in January 2020 in Scientific Reports, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarians had a 16 percent lower risk of UTI.
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When Should I See My Doctor
See your doctor if:
- you have diarrhoea that is severe or has blood in it
- you have a high fever with your diarrhoea
- you have symptoms of haemolytic uraemic syndrome
- the diarrhoea lasts for more than 2 days in an adult, or for more than 24 hours in a baby
- you get dehydrated
- you have severe pain in your abdomen or rectum
- you have signs of a urinary tract infection
- you are worried that you might have pneumonia
- you are concerned that your baby is unwell
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Can I Swim Or Use A Hot Tub With A Uti
While they can be a nuisance, UTIs, or urinary tract infections, can usually be treated at home by drinking plenty of fluids and taking paracetamol1. However, you might be wondering Can Isafelyswim with a UTI? In this article, we explore the potential risks and benefits of swimming with a UTI, and whether oceans, hot tubs and swimming pools are safe to use.
Because of the high temperature of water in a hot tub, some disinfectants like chlorine break down faster and become ineffective, leading to contamination. In addition to waterborne diseases, its important to keep in mind that sitting in a hot tub for too long can also cause heat-related illnesses, such as nausea, dizziness, fainting, and even death.
How Are Utis Diagnosed
Only a health care provider can treat urinary tract infections. The first thing a doctor will do is confirm that a person has a UTI by taking a clean-catch urine specimen. At the doctor’s office, you’ll be asked to clean your genital area with disposable wipes and then pee into a sterile cup.
The sample may be used for a urinalysis or a urine culture . Knowing what bacteria are causing the infection can help your doctor choose the best treatment.
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Pack A Portable Test Strip
If you are worried about picking something up from the pool, you can test the water with a portable test strip, which can be purchased online or at a variety of health and pool shops. You can also order a free test kit from the Water Quality and Health Council.
A portable test strip will indicate whether the chlorine or the PH levels in the pool are off, which can lead to a spread of bacteria and infections to occur.
You Eat A Lot Of Sugar
Bacteria that cause UTIs love feeding on sugar, so you run the risk of providing a feast for them whenever your sweet tooth strikes. Kalas V, et al. Structure-based discovery of glycomimetic FmlH ligands as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion during urinary tract infection. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720140115
If you eat tons of added sugars and get a real surge in your blood sugar, you may end up with some of that sugar in your urine, says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Yale School of Medicine.
Some foods and beverages, like coffee, booze, and chocolate, can also irritate your delicate urinary tract and exacerbate an existing UTI.
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Shower For At Least 60 Seconds Before Getting In The Pool And Scrub Up After
Just one swimmer can introduce billions of microbes , including fecal particles, into the water. The good news is that a one-minute rinse is all it takes to remove many of the germs and gunk we want to avoid carrying into the pool. And soaping up after a swim can help remove any icky stuff left on the skin from a dirty pool.
Cloudy Or Bloody Urine
Though slightly more uncommon, you might experience the symptom of cloudy urine or urine that contains blood . Protein or crystalline residue in the urinary tract can cause this. Whats more, the cloudy appearance can be a result of residue in the urethra. This can be a serious symptom of other maladies. Your physician will determine if this is a symptom of a urinary tract infection or another ailment.
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Urethritis Due To Gonorrhea Or Chlamydia
You have urethritis. This is an inflammation in the urethra. The urethra is the tube between the bladder and the tip of the penis. Urine drains out of the body through the urethra. There are 2 main types of this condition:
Gonococcal urethritis . This is an infection caused by gonorrhea.
Nongonococcal urethritis . This is an infection that is often caused by chlamydia. Other infections can also be the cause.
Men are more likely to have symptoms, but may not. Symptoms can start within 1 week after exposure to an infection. But they can take a month or more to appear. Or they may not even occur. Some symptoms are:
Burning or pain when urinating
Irritation in the penis
Pus discharge from the penis
Pain and possible swelling in one or both testicles
Infections in the urethra are often caused by a sexually transmitted infection . The most common STIs are gonorrhea, chlamydia, or both.
Gonococcal urethritis is an infection of the urethra. Its caused by gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection . Gonorrhea can also be in other areas of the body. This can cause:
Rectal pain and discharge
Without treatment, the infection can get worse and spread to other parts of your body. The infection can cause rashes, arthritis, and infections in your joints, heart, and brain.
Urinary Tract Infections In Women
UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.
In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.
In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.
During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.
Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:
- use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
- have had a new sexual partner in the last year
- had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
- have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
- suffer from constipation
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Drink Lots Of Water And Healthy Juices
The more fluid you consume, the more you enable your body to pass out the harmful bacteria. It is a well-established fact that low intake of healthy fluids and irregular urination makes a person more prone to urinary tract infections. So, there is no doubt that keeping the body hydrated will save you from a lot of urinary infections. Also, drink lots of fresh fruit and vegetable juices that will keep the entire digestive and urinary system healthy. Just make sure that you prefer fresh juices that have no artificial sweeteners.
What Causes Urinary Tract Infections
UTIs usually happen because bacteria enter the urethra, then make their way up into the bladder and cause an infection. Girls get UTIs much more often than guys, most likely due to differences in the shape and length of the urethra. Girls have shorter urethras than guys, and the opening lies closer to the anus and the vagina, where bacteria are likely to be.
Bacteria can get into the urethra several ways. During sex, for example, bacteria in the vaginal area may be pushed into the urethra and eventually end up in the bladder, where pee provides a good environment for the bacteria to grow. This is why females who are sexually active often get UTIs.
Bacteria may also get into a girl’s bladder if she wipes from back to front after a bowel movement , which can contaminate the urethral opening. The use of spermicides and diaphragms as contraceptives also may increase the risk of UTIs.
Sexually transmitted diseases may cause UTI-like symptoms, such as pain with peeing. This is due to the inflammation and irritation of the urethra or vagina that’s sometimes associated with chlamydia and other STDs. If untreated, STDs can lead to serious long-term problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Unlike UTIs, STDs are contagious.
Inflammation In The Urinary Tract: Host/parasite Interaction
Frequency and severity of UTI are determined by the balance between local uroepithelial defence mechanisms and pathogenity of uropathogenic micro-organisms. Specific virulence factors allow bacteria to survive and to replicate in the host. Virulence factors of E. coli and Proteus mirabilis are well established and include synthesis of aerobactin and enterobactin as well as production of haemolysin and expression of fimbriae. Mannose-sensitive fimbriae have been found on pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli species, whereas mannose-resistant fimbriae have been detected on uropathogenic species only. P-fimbriae are called pyelonephritis-associated pili because they can attach specifically to epithelial receptors of the urogenital tract and can further ascend from the bladder up to the kidneys . Abnormalities of the urinary tract or diagnostic procedures favour ascension of pathogenic bacteria.
Host-specific factors associated with UTI include production of secretory immunoglobulin A interfering with adhesion, presence of TammHorsfall mucoprotein causing bacterial aggregation and washout, bactericidal properties of the serum as well as urodynamic factors, i.e. bacterial washout . THP has specific receptors for several uropathogens and the bound bacteria are washed out in the urine.
We thank Prof. E. Ritz for constructive discussion.
What Are Possible Complications Of A Urinary Tract Infection
Most UTIs cause no complications if they spontaneously resolve quickly or if treated early in the infection with appropriate medications. However, there are a number of complications that can occur if the UTI becomes chronic or rapidly advances. Chronic infections may result in urinary strictures, abscesses, fistulas, kidney stones, and, rarely, kidney damage or bladder cancer. Rapid advancement of UTIs can lead to dehydration, kidney failure, sepsis, and death. Pregnant females with untreated UTIs may develop premature delivery and a low birth weight for the infant and run the risks of rapid advancement of the infection.
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Diabetes And Urinary Tract Infections
To avoid urinary tract infections, consult your doctor if symptoms occur.
People whose diabetes is not properly controlled have twice the risk of developing infections.
In addition to diabetes, you could be more susceptible to urinary tract infections if:
- Your blood glucose levels are not properly controlled.
- Sugar in the urine promotes bacterial growth.
- Your nervous system is already affected by diabetes .
- You could have a lazy bladder that does not empty completely.
- You are a woman.
Infectious Diseases That Are Spread Through Water
- All the diseases on this list are easily preventable, mostly by providing access to safe water and proper hygiene.
- Water-borne diseases kill millions of people every year. Many of the victims are young children.
- Leptospirosis can also be a common disease affecting dogs, so your veterinarian may recommend that your canine companion receive a vaccination for this.
Water is a basic element of life. Without water, an organism on Earth cannot survive. But sometimes, water can contain dangerous pathogens that can infect people to cause lethal diseases. And every year, millions of people around the world are killed by these illnesses, often because they do not have access to safe and clean water, proper sanitation and good hygiene. Here are 10 infectious diseases that are spread through water:
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