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What Are The Side Effects Of A Urinary Tract Infection

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Private Duty Nursing Services

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) – Symptoms & Treatment – Dr. Robert Matthews

Sometimes, seniors need help with more than daily living tasks and require a licensed medical professional. Centric Healthcare offers the services of private duty nurses who attend to your or your loved ones medical needs in your home. Examples of our services that can assist in the treatment and prevention of UTI include assistance with catheter care, medication administration, and a trained eye that can help identify self-care needs and watch for classic and non-classic UTI symptoms.

Complications Of Uti In The Elderly: What You Need To Know

Urinary Tract Infection is one of the most common infections affecting older adults. When promptly and properly treated, UTI is easily managed and rarely develops complications. But, when left untreated, UTI can lead to serious health consequences which can include permanent kidney damage. In rare instances, an infection can enter the bloodstream through the kidneys and lead to a life-threatening condition called . Therefore, early recognition of symptoms, testing, diagnosis, and treatment of UTI is important.

Im Pregnant How Will A Uti Affect My Baby

If you have a UTI and it isnt treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. Fortunately, asymptomatic bacteriuria and bladder infections are usually found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and properly, it wont hurt your baby.

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Factors Associated With The Treatment Outcomes Of Utis Among The Elderly Population

The different associated factors involved in the treatment outcomes of UTIs among the elderly population have been predicted by using binary logistic regression analysis. Gender, marital status, age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, home, polypharmacy, and presence of co-morbidities are the factors that are analyzed to predict their association with the treatment outcomes of UTIs among the study population. Out of these nine independent variables, only four of them show statistically significant association with the treatment outcomes in binary logistic regression. These associated variables are then tested in multiple logistic regression, all of them show significant association except the age factor . Table 5 shows the detailed presentation of binary and multiple logistic regression analysis.

Table 5. Predictors affecting the treatment outcomes of UTIs among the study population.

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Antibiotics For A Uti

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The form of antibiotic used to treat a bacterial UTI usually depends on which part of the tract is involved.

Lower tract UTIs can usually be treated with oral antibiotics. Upper tract UTIs require intravenous antibiotics. These antibiotics are put directly into your veins.

Sometimes, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. To reduce your risk of antibiotic resistance, your doctor will likely put you on the shortest treatment course possible. Treatment typically lasts no more than 1 week.

Results from your urine culture can help your doctor select an antibiotic treatment that will work best against the type of bacteria thats causing your infection.

Treatments other than antibiotics for bacterial UTIs are being examined. At some point, UTI treatment without antibiotics may be an option for bacterial UTIs by using cell chemistry to change the interaction between the body and the bacteria.

There are no home remedies that can cure a UTI, but there are some things that you can do that can help your medication work better.

These home remedies for UTIs, like drinking more water, may help your body clear the infection faster.

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Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Men can get UTIs, particularly if they have trouble with urine flow. Older men who experience prostatitis are at a higher risk. If the bladder is not emptying properly, the build up ofurine makes it more difficult to cure the infection.

A small number of young men may get a UTI. In males, this is usually the result of a sexually transmitted disease.

Urinary Tract Infections In Women

UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.

In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.

In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.

During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.

Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:

  • use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
  • have had a new sexual partner in the last year
  • had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
  • have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
  • suffer from constipation

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Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti

Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:

  • Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
  • Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.

Why Do Women Get Urinary Tract Infections More Often Than Men

UTI antibiotic caused painful side effects for Valley woman

Women tend to get urinary tract infections more often than men because bacteria can reach the bladder more easily in women. The urethra is shorter in women than in men, so bacteria have a shorter distance to travel.

The urethra is located near the rectum in women. Bacteria from the rectum can easily travel up the urethra and cause infections. Bacteria from the rectum is more likely to get into the urethra if you wipe from back to front after a bowel movement. Be sure to teach children how to wipe correctly.

Having sex may also cause urinary tract infections in women because bacteria can be pushed into the urethra. Using a diaphragm can lead to infections because diaphragms push against the urethra and make it harder to completely empty your bladder. The urine that stays in the bladder is more likely to grow bacteria and cause infections.

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When Should I See My Doctor

If you have any symptoms associated with a UTI or a pre-existing health condition, dont delay visiting your doctor for treatment.

UTIs can be more dangerous if youre pregnant, due to an increased risk of kidney involvement. See your doctor if you are pregnant and you think you have a UTI, even if your symptoms are mild.

Children with UTI symptoms should see a doctor, to check for a more serious underlying condition.

Bladder infections may spread to your kidneys . This is a serious infection and needs immediate treatment with antibiotics. Signs and symptoms of kidney infection include fever, back pain, diarrhoea and vomiting. If you have these symptoms, it is important to see your doctor.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor

  • Do I need any tests, such as urinalysis?
  • What is the likely cause of my urinary tract infection ?
  • Do I need medicine? How should I take it?
  • What are the possible side effects of the medicine?
  • When should I expect relief from my symptoms?
  • What symptoms would indicate that my infection is getting worse? What should I do if I experience these symptoms?
  • I get UTIs a lot. What can I do to prevent them?
  • Do I need preventive antibiotics? If so, should I be concerned about antibiotic resistance?
  • My child gets UTIs a lot. Could an anatomical problem be causing his or her UTIs?

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Tips To Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection, also called a UTI, is an infection that occurs in the urinary system. This could include the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys. Most infections involve the bladder and urethra, known as the lower urinary tract.

The most common symptoms include painful urination, tenderness above the bladder area, urgency and frequency of urination. Cloudy and a strong odor are not signs of infection.

Women are at greater risk for a UTI because the urethra is shorter than in men, so it’s easier for bacteria to travel to the bladder. UTIs also are more common in postmenopausal women because low estrogen levels change vaginal and urethral tissue to increase the risk of infection.

It’s always better to prevent an infection rather than simply treat it. UTIs are no different.

Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections

Phosenamine (Hyoscyamine, Uribel, Methylene Blue) Oral: Uses

Urinary tract infections are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the urinary tract.

The bacteria enter through the tube that carries pee out of the body .

Women have a shorter urethra than men. This means bacteria are more likely to reach the bladder or kidneys and cause an infection.

Things that increase the risk of bacteria getting into the bladder include:

  • do not use scented soap

  • do not hold your pee in if you feel the urge to go

  • do not rush when going for a pee try to fully empty your bladder

  • do not wear tight, synthetic underwear, such as nylon

  • do not drink lots of alcoholic drinks, as they may irritate your bladder

  • do not have lots of sugary food or drinks, as they may encourage bacteria to grow

  • do not use condoms or a diaphragm or cap with spermicidal lube on them try non-spermicidal lube or a different type of contraception

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When To See A Doctor

If you suspect you or a loved one has a UTI, its best to see a healthcare provider. Symptoms like painful, urgent or frequent urination shouldnt be ignored, Dr. Slopnick stresses.

Your doctor will ask about symptoms and perform a urine culture and possibly other tests to confirm if a UTI is to blame. If youre experiencing multiple UTIs a year, your doctor may also order other tests to better understand if a prolapsed bladder, enlarged prostate or other condition is causing frequent infection.

Treating Utis And Bladder Infections

UTIs and bladder infections are typically treated with antibiotics prescribed by a doctor. In order for the infection to go away completely, you need to take the full course of antibiotics, which lasts 3-7 days in most instances but can last longer.

It takes a bit of time for the inflammation to clear up every once the antibiotic begins working, though most people note significant improvement within 48 hours of being on the right antibiotic.

If antibiotics bother your stomach , consider taking probiotics to repopulate your good gut bacteria. This may also help you stay healthy and boost your bodys infection-fighting potential.

In the meantime, drink plenty of water so the flow of urine can help you flush out your system. You might also want to avoid sexual activity while youre recovering because its probably not going to feel great while your urinary tract is inflamed.

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Quality Assessment / Risk Of Bias

Two review authors assessed the risk of bias of included studies independently, with any discrepancies being resolved by consensus, or through discussion with a third reviewer , if necessary. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the assessment checklist developed by Downs and Black . Quality items that pertained to interventions and trial studies were removed as they were not deemed to be appropriate for the studies included in this review. An additional five quality items were added to the quality assessment to determine if studies described the criteria used for confusion, UTI and bacteriuria, and if their criteria for UTI and confusion were valid and reliable. Criteria for confusion were deemed valid and reliable if accepted criteria were utilised, including: the Confusion Assessment Method, the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale or the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual criteria . Similarly, criteria for UTI were deemed valid and reliable if established criteria for UTI were utilised, including: the McGeer Criteria, the revised McGeer Criteria, the Loeb Criteria, or the Revised Loeb Criteria . The modified checklist finally consisted of 14 quality items, grouped into: reporting, internal validity, external validity and criteria . The risk of bias for each quality item was reported as low risk of bias, high risk of bias, unclear risk of bias or not applicable.

Table 2 Quality Assessment Criteria

Check If It’s A Urinary Tract Infection

#23018 Electrofulguration of trigonitis in the management of recurrent urinary tract infections …

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection may include:

  • pain or a burning sensation when peeing
  • needing to pee more often than usual during the night
  • pee that looks cloudy, dark or has a strong smell
  • needing to pee suddenly or more urgently than usual
  • needing to pee more often than usual
  • lower tummy pain or pain in your back, just under the ribs
  • a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
  • a very low temperature below 36C

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Bacteria In The Urine Isnt Necessarily A Problem

Elevated urinary bacteria doesnt cause any symptoms and can often be corrected by increasing fluid intake.

The condition occurs in about 6 to 16 percent of women over age 65, 20 percent of women over age 80, and 25 to 50 percent of women living in nursing facilities.

Doctors should not treat urinary bacteria with antibiotics unless there are multiple other signs or symptoms of a UTI. This can encourage antibiotic resistance and make future UTIs harder to treat, says Dr. Lathia.

The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the urine also increases the risk of serious complications, including C. difficile infection and death.

Body Systems Harmed By Chronic Urinary Tract Infection

The side effects of an upper tract urinary infection in men are similar to those in women. For lower tract urinary infection in men, side effects may include rectal pain along with the common symptoms shared by both men and women.

Women with a lower tract urinary infection can sometimes experience pelvic pain along with the other common symptoms.

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What Is The Outlook

Most people improve within a few days of starting treatment. See a doctor if you do not quickly improve. If your symptoms do not improve despite taking an antibiotic medicine then you may need an alternative antibiotic. This is because some bacteria are resistant to some types of antibiotics. This can be identified from tests done on your urine sample.

Are Frequent Utis A Sign Of Diabetes Or Is A Uti A Symptom Of Diabetes

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A review from 2005 found that an astounding 50% of people with diabetes have some type of dysfunction of their bladder- thats half of every man and woman with diabetes. There are quite a few theories which we have already discussed, but again, most of the newer theories and research have only been conducted on rats.

Another fact this review highlights is that women who have Type 1 diabetes have a higher risk for kidney infections , which can potentially damage the kidneys function long term. This may lead to the need for a kidney transplant as the damage becomes severe.

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Other Ways To Prevent Some Utis Coming Back

If you keep getting a bladder infection , there is some evidence it may be helpful to take:

  • D-mannose a sugar you can buy as a powder or tablets to take every day
  • cranberry products available as juice, tablets or capsules to take every day

Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.

Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.

If you’re taking warfarin, you should avoid cranberry products.

Page last reviewed: 22 March 2022 Next review due: 22 March 2025

How Are Utis Treated

UTIs are treated with antibiotics. If a UTI is suspected, your healthcare provider will test a urine sample and consider your symptoms and other factors to determine if you need antibiotics.

Dr. Slopnick says a common misconception is that any bacteria found in urine is a sure-fire sign of a UTI and needs to be addressed.

If your doctor screens your urine and finds bacteria, that can be perfectly fine. If you dont have other symptoms, we generally do not recommend antibiotics, Dr. Slopnick states. Thats because its common to find bacteria in the urine that isnt related to an infection.

Urinary bacteria that dont cause any symptoms are called asymptomatic bacteriuria. This isnt dangerous to your health.

Treating asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to antibiotic resistance and make future infections harder to treat. Additionally, antibiotics can create side effects including diarrhea and C. difficile infection.

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