Organs Of The Urinary Tract
The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters , bladder, and urethra. These organs may be injured by blunt force or by penetrating force . Injuries may also occur unintentionally during surgery.
UTIs are usually classified as upper or lower according to where they occur along the urinary tract, although it is sometimes difficult or impossible for doctors to make such a determination:
Some doctors also consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower UTIs. In paired organs , infection can occur in one or both organs. UTIs can occur in children Urinary Tract Infection in Children A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder , the kidneys , or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger… read more as well as in adults.
Risk Factors For Acquisition Of Antimicrobial Resistance In E Coli
Colonization has also been suggested to be risk factor for the selection of antimicrobial resistance. Most clinical factors associated with colonization and infection by ESBL-producing organisms involve healthcare exposure, such as hospitalization, residence in a long-term care facility, hemodialysis use, and the presence of an intravascular catheter . In a study of Dutch individuals who had no ESBL colonization prior to international travel, 34 percent overall and 75 percent of individuals who travelled to southern Asia became colonized by ESBL-producing strains following their travels . Another report showed an ESBL prevalence of 49.0-64.0% for residents and 5.2-14.5% for staff . Thus, travelers to endemic areas, hospitalized patients, care-givers in health care unit, guardians of in-patients, and hospital workers, including residents, are at an increased risk of colonization by antimicrobial resistant bacteria, showing the importance of environmental hygiene and taking precautions against contact with MDR bacteria. Once a cluster of resistant bacteria colonizes any part of the human body, it is possible that the bacteria will grow and horizontally transfer plasmid-encoded resistance genes to other susceptible bacteria or to different species .
Finally, indwelling catheters, which lead to complicated UTIs, are a known a risk factor for the acquisition of MDR bacteria .
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Urinary Tract Infection: What Is It
Urinary Tract Infection is marked by the condition in which there is an infection in the urinary tract which happens due to the growth of the bacteria in the urinary tract. It can be due to many reasons, some of the common causes of urinary tract infection can be poor hygiene, the bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the genitals and then start multiplying. However, not only UTIs, some of the other causes of painful urination can be:
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How Are Kidney Infections Treated
A physician will treat the disease based on his or her examination. He or she may start the patient on the standard treatment of a course of antibiotics before the lab tests results are available. The medication may change once the exact strain of bacteria is revealed by the lab tests.
If the treatment is effective, the patient should feel better in two to three days. If not, your healthcare provider will start looking for additional problems. Most antibiotic treatments last for 14 days and it is essential that patients take the pills as recommended for the full 14 days even though symptoms may disappear after a few days. The disappearance of symptoms does not mean all bacteria are killed. Some may remain and the infection may reappear.
There is also a concern that those bacteria that remain may develop resistance to the medication. For some reason the disease is more difficult to treat in men and they may have to take medication for up to six weeks. Patients with severe illness, those that have significant nausea and vomiting, high fevers, significant pain and signs of dehydration may be hospitalized for a few days while the antibiotics are administered intravenously. Urine samples are taken after about six weeks of treatment and examined to insure the bacterial infection is eradicated.
Treatment Of Uti In Children
Your childs UTI will require prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent kidney damage. The type of bacteria causing your childs UTI and the severity of your childs infection will determine the type of antibiotic used and the length of treatment.
The most common antibiotics used for treatment of UTIs in children are:
If your child has a UTI thats diagnosed as a simple bladder infection, its likely that treatment will consist of oral antibiotics at home. However, more severe infections may require hospitalization and IV fluids or antibiotics.
Hospitalization may be necessary in cases where your child:
- is younger than 6 months old
- has a high fever that isnt improving
- likely has a kidney infection, especially if the child is very ill or young
- has a blood infection from the bacteria, as in sepsis
- is dehydrated, vomiting, or unable to take oral medications for any other reason
Pain medication to alleviate severe discomfort during urination also may be prescribed.
If your child is receiving antibiotic treatment at home, you can help ensure a positive outcome by taking certain steps.
During your childs treatment, contact their doctor if symptoms worsen or persist for more than three days. Also call their doctor if your child has:
- a fever higher than 101F
- for infants, a new or persisting fever higher than 100.4F
You should also seek medical advice if your child develops new symptoms, including:
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Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection
Patients with urinary tract infections often have a burning sensation during urination. This is typically accompanied by an intense urge to urinate that wont go away, along with frequent trips to the bathroom which only result in a small amount of urine being passed. Urine may appear cloudy or have blood mixed in, giving it a pink to brownish color. Sufferers of a urinary tract infection may exhibit flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and body chills.
Complications Of Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are an extremely common condition, and most people recover quickly with antibiotic treatment. However, if left untreated the infection can spread throughout the urinary tract system, increasing in severity and causing complications.
In some cases, the infection can reach the kidneys in the upper urinary tract, an infection known as pyelonephritis. Without medical intervention, this can lead to permanent kidney damage. Possible complications from untreated UTIs include:
- Formation of abscesses within or around the kidneys
- Swelling of the kidneys, also known as hydronephrosis
- , also known as blood poisoning
All of these complications are serious and require immediate medical attention.
Related Conditions And Causes Of Uti
There are a number of health conditions that share some symptoms with urinary tract infections, including:
The following conditions may make you more susceptible to developing a UTI and increase the severity of symptoms:
Type 2 diabetes
And having a UTI can increase a man’s risk for benign prostatic hyperplasia .
Common Causes Of Utis In Men
Inactive lifestyle and unhygienic conditions An inactive and unhygienic lifestyle is a major cause of urinary tract infection in m. If a man does not clean the penis properly, dirt and dead cells tend to develop under the foreskin. It may ultimately cause harmful bacterial growth to reach the male urinary tract and result in urinary tract infection. Therefore, uncircumcised males are at higher risk of getting a UTI. Especially, uncircumcised males with a tight foreskin that cannot be retracted easily come in contact with a urinary tract infection.
Bowel incontinence and urinary tract infections- There are high chances for a male to catch a UTI if he is already dealing with fecal or bowel incontinence. The frequent leakage of the fecal matter can cause harmful bacteria to reach the urinary tract fast. Also, its a fact that males with bowel incontinence are 3 times more at the risk of developing urinary tract infections.
Drinking less water If a man does not drink enough water every day, he becomes more prone to a urinary tract infection. Drinking 7-8 glasses of water everyday flush out harmful bacteria out of the body. Hence, drinking less water can be a major cause of UTI in men.
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When E Coli Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli, is the cause of approximately 85% of urinary tract infections . E. coli can develop in raw produce, unpasteurized fruit juice, raw and undercooked beef, and contaminated water. In most cases, individuals with healthy immune systems do not experience negative symptoms when exposed to E. coli. If an individual has a weakened immune system, he or she can become ill from E. coli exposure. One of the ways a victim can suffer from this type of food poisoning is a UTI.
- An overwhelming, persistent urge to urinate
- Painful urination and
- Discharge from the urethra.
It can be easy to mistake UTI symptoms for symptoms of other conditions. This is especially common with older UTI patients and women who might mistake UTI symptoms for PMS and menstruation.
How E.Coli can Cause a UTI
Treating a UTI
UTIs must be treated with antibiotics. It is a common belief that cranberry juice and other products can treat UTIs, but the truth is that these products can only lessen an individualâs risk of developing one, and even then, data is mixed. They cannot treat an existing infection.
Work with an Experienced Libertyville Food Poisoning Attorney
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You Dont Pee After Sex
The threat of getting a UTI shouldnt stop you from getting it on. But that doesnt mean resigning yourself to the afterburn.
One simple way to cut your risk: Head to the potty after youve finished your romp. Youll possibly flush out the bacteria that may have made their way into your urinary tract. Urinary Tract Infection. .
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What Kinds Of Doctors Treat Urinary Tract Infections
Most urinary tract infections can be treated by your primary care doctor or your child’s pediatrician. They are usually the best provider to treat you as they are most familiar with your medical history, medications you are taking, and other factors that might affect your treatment. If you seek treatment in an urgent care facility, a specialist in emergency medicine may be involved in your care.
If there are frequent reoccurrences of UTIs or if complicating circumstances are present, your primary care doctor might refer you to a urologist, a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system.
What Are The Symptoms Of Dysuria
Symptoms of painful urination can vary between men and women, but both genders usually describe it as a burning, stinging or itching. Burning is the most commonly reported symptom.
Pain can occur at the start of urination or after urination. Pain at the start of your urination is often a symptom of a urinary tract infection. Pain after your urination can be a sign of a problem with the bladder or prostate. In men, pain can remain in your penis before and after urination too.
Symptoms in women can be internal or external. Pain outside your vaginal area may be caused by inflammation or irritation of this sensitive skin. Internal pain can be a symptom of a urinary tract infection.
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Diagnosis Of Uti In Children
Contact their doctor immediately if your child has symptoms related to a UTI. A urine sample is required for their doctor to make an accurate diagnosis. The sample may be used for:
- Urinalysis. Urine is tested with a special test strip to look for signs of infection such as blood and white blood cells. In addition, a microscope may be used to examine the sample for bacteria or pus.
- Urine culture. This laboratory test usually takes 24 to 48 hours. The sample is analyzed to identify the type of bacteria causing the UTI, how much of it exists, and appropriate antibiotic treatment.
Collecting a clean urine sample can be a challenge for children who arent toilet trained. A usable sample cant be obtained from a wet diaper. Your childs doctor may use one of the following techniques to get your childs urine sample:
- Urine collection bag. A plastic bag is taped over your childs genitals to collect the urine.
- Catheterized urine collection. A catheter is inserted into the tip of a boys penis or into a girls urethra and into the bladder to collect urine. This is the most accurate method.
How Is Dysuria Treated
Treatment for dysuria depends on the cause of your pain/burning sensation. The first step in your treatment is to determine if your painful urination is caused by infection, inflammation, dietary factors, or a problem with your bladder or prostate.
- Urinary tract infections are most commonly treated with antibiotics. If your pain is severe, you may be prescribed phenazopyridine. Note: this medication turns you urine red-orange and stains undergarments.
- Inflammation caused by irritation to the skin is usually treated by avoiding the cause of the irritant.
- Dysuria caused by an underlying bladder or prostate condition is treated by addressing the underlying condition.
There are several steps you can take to reduce the discomfort of painful urination, including drinking more water or taking an over-the-counter aid to treat painful urination. Other treatments need prescription medications.
If you have frequent urinary tract infections, your provider can help find the cause.
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Gi Issues Caused By Kidney Stones
Normally, kidney stones cause symptoms such as pressure and pain in your lower back, fever, frequent urination, discomfort urinating, and bloody or discoloured urine. However, sometimes kidney stones can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and stomach discomfort.
If youre experiencing sudden low back pain and gastrointestinal discomfort, dont ignore the possibility that it might be kidney stones.
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Home Remedies To Relieve Utis
If you do find yourself with a Urinary Tract Infection, there are several home remedies you can try before resorting to an over the counter or prescription drug.
Increase Your Water Intake. An increase in fluids can help flush out the urinary tract and put you on the road to recovery. Just make sure you’re drinking water and avoid any sugary or caffeinated drinks.
Empty Your Bladder Frequently. Emptying your bladder helps you get rid of the bacteria that’s causing the infection. Be sure to go whenever you feel the urge – dont hold it in!
Take Some Vitamin C. Eat plenty of foods rich in Vitamin C, or take a supplement to make your urine more acidic. This helps prevent the growth of bacteria in your urine.
Watch What You Eat. Avoiding bladder irritants can help make it easier for your body to fight off infections within the urinary tract. Steer clear of spicy foods, acidic foods, carbonated drinks, or sugary sweets.
Use Heat To Relieve Pain. Urinary Tract Infections can be painful. Use a heating pad on the stomach or pubic area to relieve discomfort, or take a warm bath.
Baking Soda. This household staple can help neutralize the acidity in your urine, helping you to heal from the infection. Add a teaspoon of baking soda to a glass of water and drink up.
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What Is Frequent Urination
Inconvenient and disruptive to your daily life, frequent urination is when you need to urinate many times throughout a 24-hour period. This is a symptom of many different conditions and can have a wide variety of solutions. At some points in your life, like during pregnancy, you may need to pee more frequently. This can be a normal symptom of something like pregnancy and it usually passes after birth. However, frequent urination can be linked to other health issues that arent normal parts of life and dont fade over time. It can be a symptom of more serious conditions like diabetes, overactive bladder syndrome, UTIs or prostate problems. Needing to urinate frequently can even disturb your sleep. That full bladder that keeps waking you up in the middle of an otherwise good nights sleep is a condition called nocturia.
In many cases, your healthcare provider can help relieve this symptom by treating the underlying condition.
Are Some Women More At Risk For Utis
- Are sexually active. Sexual activity can move germs that cause UTIs from other areas, such as the vagina, to the urethra.
- Use a diaphragm for birth control or use spermicides with a diaphragm or with condoms. Spermicides can kill good bacteria that protect you from UTIs.
- Are pregnant. Pregnancy hormones can change the bacteria in the urinary tract, making UTIs more likely. Also, many pregnant women have trouble completely emptying the bladder, because the uterus with the developing baby sits on top of the bladder during pregnancy. Leftover urine with bacteria in it can cause a UTI.
- Have gone through menopause. After menopause, loss of the hormone estrogen causes vaginal tissue to become thin and dry. This can make it easier for harmful bacteria to grow and cause a UTI.
- Have diabetes, which can lower your immune system and cause nerve damage that makes it hard to completely empty your bladder
- Have any condition, like a kidney stone, that may block the flow of urine between your kidneys and bladder
- Have or recently had a catheter in place. A catheter is a thin tube put through the urethra into the bladder. Catheters drain urine when you cannot pass urine on your own, such as during surgery.
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