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What Is The Main Cause Of Urinary Tract Infections

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While its tempting to jump to a conclusion and blame bad bacteria for all the troubles, I suggest you take a moment to appreciate the sheer multitude of issues that could disguise themselves as a urinary tract infection or make you prone to infection.

Gaining awareness about UTI causes could drastically improve your chances of healing. Please, dont be quick to start a protocol or buy a new supplement that worked for someone. Jumping to a solution without recognizing root causes will only cost you money and time.

How Can You Tell The Difference Between A Uti And Bladder Infection

Bladder infections are a type of UTI that involves the lower urinary tract, including the bladder. A bladder infection can spread to other parts of your urinary tract or kidneys if left untreated. The symptoms of bladder infections and UTIs can be similar. See a doctor if you are experiencing symptoms of a UTI, such as painful or frequent urination, pain in your central lower abdomen, or blood in your urine.

When Should People Seek Medical Care For A Uti

Any adult or child who develops any of the symptoms of a urinary tract infection needs to be evaluated by a medical professional, preferably within 24 hours. Most medical offices can test urine for infection by using a quick urine dipstick test.

  • Someone who has symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection should call a health care professional for an appointment, preferably on the same day that symptoms are recognized.
  • Someone who has symptoms of an upper urinary tract infection involving the kidneys should call a health care professional immediately. Depending on the situation, he or she will recommend either a visit to the office or a hospital emergency department.

If someone has symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection and any of the following applies, he or she may be at risk for complications of the urinary tract infection.

  • Vomiting and inability to keep down clear fluids or medication
  • Not better after taking antibiotics for two days
  • Having diabetes or another disease that affects the immune system
  • Taking medication that suppresses the immune system such as cancer chemotherapy

Infants, children, and elderly people with any of the signs and symptoms of UTI should see their health care professional as soon as possible or go to an emergency department for evaluation.

The usual treatment for both simple and complicated urinary tract infections is antibiotics. The type of antibiotic and duration of treatment depends on the circumstances.

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Other Ways To Prevent Some Utis Coming Back

If you keep getting a bladder infection , there is some evidence it may be helpful to take:

  • D-mannose a sugar you can buy as a powder or tablets to take every day
  • cranberry products available as juice, tablets or capsules to take every day

Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.

Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.

If you’re taking warfarin, you should avoid cranberry products.

Page last reviewed: 22 March 2022 Next review due: 22 March 2025

Things You Can Do Yourself

Urinary Tract Infection  UTI  Vedas Mantra Healthcare

To help ease symptoms of a urinary tract infection :

  • takeparacetamolup to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
  • you can give childrenliquid paracetamol
  • rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day
  • avoid having sex

Some people take cystitis sachets or cranberry drinks and products every day to prevent UTIs from happening, which may help. However, there’s no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat a UTI if the infection has already started.

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How Do You Know If Pelvic Pain Is Serious

While not all pelvic pain is serious, seeking medical care when symptoms are severe is important. You should head to the nearest emergency room if:

  • Pelvic pain is sharp, severe or sudden.
  • Youâre unable to stand up straight.
  • There is blood in your pee or poop.
  • Youâre running a fever.
  • Youâre pregnant or have been pregnant in the last six months.

Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Men can get UTIs, particularly if they have trouble with urine flow. Older men who experience prostatitis are at a higher risk. If the bladder is not emptying properly, the build up ofurine makes it more difficult to cure the infection.

A small number of young men may get a UTI. In males, this is usually the result of a sexually transmitted disease.

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Diagnosis Of Urinary Tract Infections In A Child

When you notice your child has some signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection, take them to see a doctor immediately. UTIs do not get better if left untreated and could be life-threatening. When you get to the hospital, the pediatrician will take a urine sample and test it for bacteria.

Your doctor may collect the urine sample in different ways depending on the age of your child:

  • If your child is older, they can urinate into a cup.
  • If your child is younger and not toilet-trained, the pediatrician will have a plastic bag placed over their genitals to collect the urine.
  • The children who are still in their diapers may have a tube placed in their urethra and bladder to collect the urine.
  • With an infant, the pediatrician may place a needle into their bladder through the stomach using a needle and syringe.

The urine sample will test bacteria and culture to detect bacteria and fungi. This test may take one to three days for the result to come back. If the tests reveal a bacterial infection, the pediatrician will prescribe the best medication for treatment.

If your child has had a few UTIs, their pediatrician may refer you to a nephrologist for imaging tests like:

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Acute pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection) – causes, symptoms & pathology

An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.

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Why Do Women Get Utis More Often Than Men

The main reason that urinary tract infections are more common in women is their anatomy. A womans urethra is much shorter than a mans, making it much easier for E. coli and other bacteria to reach the bladder in women. In other words, bacteria dont have to travel as far to reach in the bladder in women.

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Common Causes And Risk Factors

While a UTI can occur in any part of your urinary system , most UTIs affect the bladder and urethra .Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis are among the bacteria most commonly linked to UTIs.


Because of certain anatomical factors, women face a much higher risk of UTIs . This is because women have a shorter urethra, which allows bacteria to reach and infect the bladder far more easily. Whats more, the opening to the urethra in women is significantly closer to the rectum, where UTI-causing bacteria are known to dwell.


Due to pregnancy-related changes in the urinary tract, UTIs may also be more common during pregnancy .

Its said that the increased size and weight of the uterus may prevent the complete drainage of urine from the bladder, which can make pregnant women more UTI-prone.


Women who have gone through menopause may also have a greater risk of urinary tract infections, possibly due to hormonal changes that might affect the beneficial bacteria responsible for fighting off harmful microorganisms in the urinary tract.

Health Conditions

Several chronic health problems may increase UTI risk as well. These include conditions associated with impaired immune response , which can weaken your bodys ability to fend off bacteria. Age-related issues like Alzheimers disease may also factor into UTI risk, since they may interfere with personal hygiene.

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Condom Use During Sex

Non-lubricated latex condoms may increase friction and irritate the skin during sexual intercourse. This may increase the risk of a UTI.

But there are many reasons to use condoms. Theyre important for reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections and preventing unwanted pregnancy.

To help prevent friction and skin irritation from condoms, be sure to use enough water-based lubricant during sex.

Avoid using condoms coated with spermicide.

Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Urinary Tract Infection: Causes, Symptoms &  Treatment

UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.

In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.

In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.

During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.

Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:

  • use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
  • have had a new sexual partner in the last year
  • had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
  • have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
  • suffer from constipation

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Testing For Epithelial Cells

The test for epithelial cells in urine is part of a urinalysis a test that measures the levels of different substances in urine.

A doctor may order this test if a person comes to them with symptoms of a urinary infection or kidney disorder, such as:

  • frequent urination

A doctor may also order urinalysis if a visual or chemical urine test showed that there might be a raised number of epithelial cells in a persons urine.

Before the test, a doctor will give a person a container to collect their urine in and explain how to take the sample.

Most people will use what is called the clean catch method. A person is given a sterile pad and container to take to the bathroom.

The person uses the pad to clean their genitals before urinating in a sterilized container. They allow a small amount of urine to flow and then collect the sample midstream. It is crucial that they do not touch the inside of the specimen cup with their genitals or hands.

The urine sample is then sent to a lab where it will be analyzed for different substances.

There are three possible results of a test for epithelial cells in urine. These are:

If a persons test result is few, this means their results are normal. Having a result of moderate or many may indicate a medical condition.

Unless the person has other symptoms that point to a clear cause, the doctor will likely recommend further tests before making a diagnosis.

Treatment For Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections in men are more complicated than in women and do require a proper treatment. Most times the infection may reach up to the kidney and cause severe complications.

The treatment for Urinary tract infection differs from patient to patient as the doctors need to be fully aware of the symptoms and severity level. If you have a mild infection then you may feel better within seven day with proper medication.

However, if you have a severe Urinary Tract infection then it may take up to four to six weeks to completely heal with proper medication and home remedies.

Here are a few medications that your doctor may prescribe for your UTI depending on your severity.

  • antibiotics, such as nitrofurantoin, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin, or aminoglycosides
  • medications to reduce the fever
  • medications to reduce or eliminate pain

Please do not consume any medication without consulting your doctor.

Some of the home remedies for Urinary tract infection are:

  • Drink a lot of water as it will help you in stimulating urine and flushing out the bacteria. Drink about 8-10 glasses on water
  • Drink natural juices like cranberry, orange, pineapple all fluids are important for the body
  • Maintain a good diet this will help the medications to work better
  • Do not drink or smoke as this may be problematic

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You Eat A Lot Of Sugar

Bacteria that cause UTIs love feeding on sugar, so you run the risk of providing a feast for them whenever your sweet tooth strikes. Kalas V, et al. Structure-based discovery of glycomimetic FmlH ligands as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion during urinary tract infection. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720140115

If you eat tons of added sugars and get a real surge in your blood sugar, you may end up with some of that sugar in your urine, says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Yale School of Medicine.

Some foods and beverages, like coffee, booze, and chocolate, can also irritate your delicate urinary tract and exacerbate an existing UTI.

Urgent Advice: Ask For An Urgent Gp Appointment Or Get Help From Nhs 111 If:

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Signs & Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

You think you, your child or someone you care for may have a urinary tract infection and:

  • a very high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
  • a very low temperature below 36C
  • are confused, drowsy or have difficulty speaking
  • have not been for a pee all day
  • have pain in the lower tummy or in the back, just under the ribs
  • can see blood in their pee

These symptoms could mean you have a kidney infection, which can be serious if it’s not treated as it could cause .

You can call 111 or get help from 111 online.

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How To Feel Better

If your healthcare professional prescribes you antibiotics:

  • Take antibiotics exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
  • Do not share your antibiotics with others.
  • Do not save antibiotics for later. Talk to your healthcare professional about safely discarding leftover antibiotics.

Drink plenty of water or other fluids. Your healthcare professional might also recommend medicine to help lessen the pain or discomfort. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your antibiotics.

Eat Healthy And Exercise

A healthy diet and exercise are two of the best ways for most everyone with SCI to boost their immune system. A healthy immune system helps you to fight off infections.

  • Ask your health professional for advice before starting an exercise program or changing your diet.
  • Consider taking vitamin and mineral supplements. Zinc magnesium and vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, and E may help to boost your immune system. Ask your health professional for advice before taking any supplements.

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A Pharmacist Can Help With Utis

You can ask a pharmacist about treatments for a UTI.

A pharmacist can:

  • offer advice on things that can help you get better
  • suggest the best painkiller to take
  • tell you if you need to see a GP about your symptoms

Some pharmacies offer a UTI management service. They may be able to give antibiotics if they’re needed.

Urinary Tract Infection Treatment

Chronic Urinary Tract Infection

If you are a healthy adult man or a woman who is not pregnant, a few days of antibiotic pills will usually cure your urinary tract infection. If you are pregnant, your doctor will prescribe a medicine that is safe for you and the baby. Usually, symptoms of the infection go away 1 to 2 days after you start taking the medicine. Its important that you follow your doctors instructions for taking the medicine, even if you start to feel better. Skipping pills could make the treatment less effective.

Your doctor may also suggest a medicine to numb your urinary tract and make you feel better while the antibiotic starts to work. The medicine makes your urine turn bright orange, so dont be alarmed by the color when you urinate.

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Check If It’s A Urinary Tract Infection

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection may include:

  • pain or a burning sensation when peeing
  • needing to pee more often than usual during the night
  • pee that looks cloudy, dark or has a strong smell
  • needing to pee suddenly or more urgently than usual
  • needing to pee more often than usual
  • lower tummy pain or pain in your back, just under the ribs
  • a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
  • a very low temperature below 36C

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