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What Is Urinary Tract Malignancy

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Whats The Difference Between A Urinary Tract Infection And Bladder Infection

Urinary Tract Infection – Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment)

A urinary tract infection is a more general type of infection. There are many parts of your urinary tract. A UTI is a term for an infection that takes place throughout the urinary tract. A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is a specific infection. In this infection, bacteria makes its way into the bladder and causes inflammation.

Not all urinary tract infections become bladder infections. Preventing the spread of the infection is one of the most important reasons to treat a UTI quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can spread not only to the bladder, but also into your kidneys, which is a more complicated type of infection than a UTI.

Advanced Or Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinomas

First-line regimens for advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinomas consists of and ) or a combination of , , , and .

Taxanes or have been used as second-line therapy .

such as is often used as second-line therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma that has progressed despite treatment with GC or MVAC.

In May 2016, the FDA granted to for locally advanced or metastatic treatment after failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The failed to achieve its of .

In April 2021, the FDA granted accelerated approval to for people with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer who previously received a platinum-containing chemotherapy and either a programmed death receptor-1 or a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor.

What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.

More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.

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What Affects The Amount Of Urine You Produce

The amount of urine you produce depends on many factors, such as the amount of liquid and food you consume and the amount of fluid you lose through sweating and breathing. Certain medicines, medical conditions, and types of food can also affect the amount of urine you produce. Children produce less urine than adults.

Treatment Of Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

BLADDER CANCER  Africa Cancer Hub

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body may include the following:

Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver, may include the following:

  • External radiation therapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • Urinary diversion or cystectomy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • A clinical trial of new anticancer drugs.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Who Grading Of 1973 And 2004

1973 WHO grading: Urothelial papilloma Grade 1: well differentiated grade 2: moderately differentiated grade 3: poorly differentiated.

2004 WHO grading

According to the histological classification of urinary tract tumors, elaborated by WHO in 2004 and ISUP, noninvasive bladder tumors are represented by:

papillary urothelial tumor of low malignant potential

noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma

noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma

urothelial CIS

The 2004, WHO grading differentiated between PUNLMP and low- or high-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas.

PUNLMP are defined as lesions that do not have malignant cytological characteristics, but that present as normal urothelial cells in a papillary configuration. Although their risk of progression is negligible, they are not completely benign and have a tendency to recur. The intermediate grade , a subject of controversy, was eliminated.

Use of the 2004 WHO classification is recommended because it offers a uniform diagnosis of tumors, which are better classified and are in accordance with the risk potential. However, until the 2004 classification was validated by several clinical trials, tumors were classified concomitantly also using the system proposed in 1973 .

A major characteristic of noninvasive bladder tumors is their heterogeneity. They can be classified into three categories from a clinical point of view: low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk:

D.R. Wallace, in, 2014

What Is A Urinary Tract Tumor

A urinary tract tumor is a type of cancer that develops from the disorganized uncontrolled growth of cells that make up the urinary system. A tumor of the urinary tract could involve the kidneys, ureters , urinary bladder, prostate gland , and urethra .

Bladder tumors are by far the most common type of urinary tract tumor. Of these, transitional cell carcinoma is the most common. This type of tumor originates from the cells that line the bladder. Bladder tumors need to be distinguished from benign conditions such as inflammatory masses or polyps and noncancerous diseases that cause thickening of the bladder wall.

Primary kidney tumors are relatively rare in both cats and dogs and are almost always malignant. About 50% of these tumors arise from the cells that line the kidney tubules . These are called renal carcinomas. While renal carcinoma is the most common kidney cancer in dogs, renal lymphoma is the most common kidney cancer in cats.

Primary tumors of the urethra or ureter are also rare in cats and dogs. These types of tumors develop from the cells that line the ureter and urethra.

Tumors can also develop in the prostate gland in male dogs.

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What To Do About Changes When You Urinate

Narrator:What to do about changes when you urinate caused by radiation therapy.

Having problems when you urinate? Listen to solutions from other people undergoing radiation therapy. Also, hear advice from Dr. Ross. Then talk with your own doctor or nurse to learn more.

Miguel:Tip number 1: Drink lots of liquids each day.It’s good for your urine to be clear or a pale yellow color. My doctor says that tells you you’re getting enough liquids. Most people find drinking about 8 cups of liquid a day does the trick. Of course, check to make sure that’s the best amount for you, too.

Cara:Tip number 2: Water is wonderful, but you may want more zip in your sip.I like water, but found it was hard to get enough water each day. I was glad to learn that Jell-O and soups also count as liquids. To add some zip to what I drink, I have water with a little lemon and watered-down juices.

Rodney:Tip number 3: Lose the booze.My doctor told me that wine, liquor, or even beer could really bother my bladder. So now I limit these liquids. Some people may need to stay away from wine, liquor, and beer altogether to avoid irritating their bladder.

My doctor also told me to stay away from caffeine in coffee, colas, or teas. They could make my bladder problems worse. I now choose flavored decaf coffees and tasty herbal teas.

Dr. Ross:Hi, I’m Dr. Ross and you just heard 3 great tips to keep bladder problems under control.

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  • January 23, 2020

Occupational Exposure And Safe Handling

Acute pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection) – causes, symptoms & pathology

In the 1970s, antineoplastic drugs were identified as hazardous, and the has since then introduced the concept of after publishing a recommendation in 1983 regarding handling hazardous drugs. The adaptation of federal regulations came when the U.S. first released its guidelines in 1986 and then updated them in 1996, 1999, and, most recently, 2006.

The has been conducting an assessment in the workplace since then regarding these drugs. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been linked to multiple health effects, including infertility and possible carcinogenic effects. A few cases have been reported by the NIOSH alert report, such as one in which a female pharmacist was diagnosed with papillary transitional cell carcinoma. Twelve years before the pharmacist was diagnosed with the condition, she had worked for 20 months in a hospital where she was responsible for preparing multiple antineoplastic drugs. The pharmacist didn’t have any other risk factor for cancer, and therefore, her cancer was attributed to the exposure to the antineoplastic drugs, although a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established in the literature. Another case happened when a malfunction in biosafety cabinetry is believed to have exposed nursing personnel to antineoplastic drugs. Investigations revealed evidence of genotoxic biomarkers two and nine months after that exposure.

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Smoking Can Affect The Risk Of Bladder Cancer

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer.

Risk factors for bladder cancer include the following:

  • Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes.
  • Having a family history of bladder cancer.
  • Having certain changes in the genes that are linked to bladder cancer.
  • Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace.
  • Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide.
  • Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.
  • Drinking water from a well that has high levels of arsenic.
  • Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine.
  • Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.
  • Using urinarycatheters for a long time.

Older age is a risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

Benign And Malignant Tumors Of The Urinary Tract

Urinary tract tumors can either be benign or malignant .

Urinary tract tumors can either be benign or malignant . There are certain tumors that are classified as atypical meaning that some behave in a benign manner, or some behave in a malignant manner. A majority of the tumors diagnosed via lab studies are benign.

The World Health Organization is an authoritative body that compiles, prepares, and publishes histological and molecular classification of tumors, via their Blue Books, based on research inputs from experts worldwide. These reference books chiefly aid in global cancer research, provide gold standards for tumor diagnosis, and help in treating cancer patients.

According to the WHO Classification of Urinary and Male Genital Tumors , 5th Ed., Vol. 8, benign and malignant tumors of the urinary tract are classified in the following manner:

Tumors of the urinary tract:

  • Tumors of the urinary tract

Urothelial tumors

  • Invasive urothelial neoplasms
  • Invasive urothelial carcinoma
  • Squamous cell neoplasms of the urinary tract

    Glandular neoplasms

    • Villous adenoma: It is an exceedingly rare tumor arising in the urinary bladder, from the urothelium. Most of the cases are observed in middle-aged and older adults, and a male predominance is noted
  • Adenocarcinomas
  • Adenocarcinoma NOS: It is a rare malignant tumor of the urothelial epithelium with glandular differentiation, typically affecting middle-aged and older men
  • Urachal and diverticular neoplasms

    Urethral neoplasms

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    What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer

    No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:

    • Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
    • Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
    • Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
    • Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
    • Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
    • Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.

    What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

    Prostate Cancer Can Soon be Diagnosed with A Simple Urine Test

    A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary system. This type of infection can involve your urethra , kidneys or bladder, .

    Your urine typically doesnt contain bacteria . Urine is a byproduct of our filtration systemthe kidneys. When waste products and excess water is removed from your blood by the kidneys, urine is created. Normally, urine moves through your urinary system without any contamination. However, bacteria can get into the urinary system from outside of the body, causing problems like infection and inflammation. This is a urinary tract infection .

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    Causes Of Bladder Cancer

    Most cases of bladder cancer appear to be caused by exposure to harmful substances, which lead to abnormal changes in the bladder’s cells over many years.

    Tobacco smoke is a common cause and it’s estimated that more than 1 in 3 cases of bladder cancer are caused by smoking.

    Contact with certain chemicals previously used in manufacturing is also known to cause bladder cancer. However, these substances have since been banned.

    Read more about the causes of bladder cancer.

    How Do These Types Of Tumors Typically Progress

    Benign tumors may be of no consequence, never causing any signs of disease. Malignant tumors, however, metastasize to other areas of the body, including the nearby lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bones, brain, spinal cord, and adrenal glands. Since tumors of the urinary tract are more likely to be malignant than benign, staging is always recommended prior to planning and starting treatment. Staging is the process by which diagnostic tests are performed to determine if the tumor has metastasized. Staging could include X-rays of the lungs, spine and hips to screen for spread to the lungs and bones. It may also include ultrasound of the abdomen to screen for spread to the liver, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes.

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    Other Ways Of Describing Bladder Cancer

    In addition to its cell type, bladder cancer may be described as noninvasive, non-muscle-invasive, or muscle-invasive.

    • Noninvasive. Noninvasive bladder cancer includes noninvasive papillary carcinoma and carcinoma in situ . Noninvasive papillary carcinoma is a growth found on a small section of tissue that is easily removed. This is called stage Ta. CIS is cancer that is found only on or near the surface of the bladder, which is called stage Tis. See Stages and Grades for more information.

    • Non-muscle-invasive. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer typically has only grown into the lamina propria and not into muscle, also called stage I. Non-muscle-invasive cancer may also be called superficial cancer, although this term is being used less often because it may incorrectly suggest that the cancer is not serious.

    • Muscle-invasive. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer has grown into the muscle of the bladder wall and sometimes into the fatty layers or surrounding tissues or organs outside the bladder.

    It is important to note that non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has the potential of spreading into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body. Additionally, all cell types of bladder cancer can spread beyond the bladder to other areas of the body through a process known as metastasis.

    Treatment Of Stages Ii And Iii Bladder Cancer

    The Urinary System In 7 Minutes

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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    Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body

    When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.

    • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
    • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.

    The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if bladder cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually bladder cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bladder cancer, not bone cancer.

    What Causes Bladder Cancer

    Healthcare providers and researchers dont know exactly why certain bladder cells mutate and become cancerous cells. Theyve identified many different risk factors that may increase your chance of developing bladder cancer, including:

    • Cigarette smoke: Smoking cigarettes more than doubles your risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars and being exposed to second-hand smoke may also increase your risk.
    • Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to treat cancer may increase your risk of developing bladder cancer.
    • Chemotherapy: Certain chemotherapy drugs may increase your risk.
    • Exposure to certain chemicals: Studies show that people who work with certain chemicals used in dyes, rubber, leather, paint, some textiles and hairdressing supplies may have an increased risk.
    • Frequent bladder infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract infections may be at an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
    • Chronic catheter use: People who have a chronic need for a catheter in their bladder may be at risk for squamous cell carcinoma.

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