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What Causes Multiple Urinary Tract Infections

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What Is The Treatment For Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infection, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Specific treatment for UTIs will be determined by your physician based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history
  • Extent of the infection
  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease
  • Your opinion or preference

Most commonly UTI’s are treated with antibiotics. The type of antibiotic and length of treatment is determined by the specific bacteria and type of infection. Many women can be treated with a short course of antibiotics. Sometimes bladder analgesics such as phenazopyridine can be given to relieve the symptoms of the UTI. While these will not kill the bacteria they can significantly reduce symptoms. Drinking plenty of water to help cleanse the urinary tract of bacteria can be helpful. In cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria, often no treatment necessary or recommended.

What Is The Long

Urinary tract infections are uncomfortable and painful. Most chronic UTIs will resolve with a prolonged course of antibiotics, but monitoring for further symptoms is important since the chronic UTIs usually recur. People with UTIs should monitor their bodies and seek immediate treatment with the onset of a new infection. Early treatment of infection decreases your risk for more serious, long-term complications.

If youre susceptible to recurring UTIs, make sure to:

  • urinate as often as needed
  • wipe front to back after urinating

What Are The Treatment Options For Uti

Urine alkalizer and antibiotics are the first choices for treating urinary tract infections .

The physician chooses antibiotics to treat your UTI based on:

  • Effectiveness of the antibiotic toward infecting bacteria.
  • The severity of the infection.
  • Your age group.
  • Antibiotic resistance.

Some of the antibiotics used to treat UTIs include:

  • Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs
  • Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic many organisms may show resistance to this type of antibiotic
  • Fluoroquinolones avoid giving them to pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Tetracyclines are used for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections never use them to treat pregnant women or the pediatric population
  • Aminoglycosides are usually used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe UTIs
  • Macrolides are used more often to treat some urinary problems caused by sexually transmitted diseases
  • Fosfomycin , a synthetic phosphonic acid derivative, is used for acute cystitis but not in complicated UTIs

Apart from antibiotics, cranberry juice is known to show improvement in UTIs however, monitor for the following signs if you are drinking cranberry juice to treat UTIs:

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Things You Can Do Yourself

To help ease symptoms of a urinary tract infection :

  • takeparacetamolup to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
  • you can give childrenliquid paracetamol
  • rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day
  • avoid having sex

Some people take cystitis sachets or cranberry drinks and products every day to prevent UTIs from happening, which may help. However, there’s no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat a UTI if the infection has already started.

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy

Kidney Infection vs UTI: What

UTI is the most frequent medical complication of pregnancy. The risk factors of preterm delivery, low infant birth weight and abortions are most commonly associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.77 In pregnancy, factors that contribute to UTI risk are ureteric and renal pelvis dilation increased urinary pH decreased muscle tone of the ureters, and glycosuria, which promotes bacterial growth. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy reduces the risk of pyelonephritis. As RUTIs are common in pregnancy, they need prophylactic treatment if they occur. Screening for bacteriuria is recommended in all pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and then in the third trimester.82,83 They should subsequently be treated with antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole or cephalexin.21,24,8284 Antibiotic prophylaxis for RUTI in pregnant women is effective using continuous or post-coital regimens. The causative organisms of UTI in pregnancy are similar to those found in non-pregnant patients, with E. coli accounting for 8090% of infections.85,86 Urinary group B streptococcal infections in pregnant women need to be treated and followed by intrapartum prophylaxis.21

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Drink Little Water During The Day

In the same way that holding the pee for a long time can facilitate the development of fungi and bacteria in the urethra and bladder, drinking little water during the day can also have the same effect. This happens because the body stops producing enough urine to use the toilet several times during the day, allowing the microorganisms that would be eliminated in the urine to continue ascending to the bladder.

Thus, it is advised to drink at least about 2 liters of water a day to keep the urinary system healthy.

Esthers Story: A Fictitious Case Study

Esther is 32 years old, has a new baby, is deputy head of a local school, goes kayaking and walks the dog.

Without good care

After falling a lot and noticing other symptoms she is diagnosed with MS. She starts to become isolated trying to cope with this diagnosis, a new baby, her marriage and work. She searches online for information and becomes frightened.

She develops a urinary tract infection and her mobility worsens. Without support and advice she attends A& E who do not have her notes. In her panic she has not brought any information with her. They give her a course of steroids without testing her urine. Four days later her MS team is notified and she is finally given the advice she needs to manage her symptoms. After an eight-day hospital stay, she is able to go home.

With ideal care: an aspirational digital scenario

MS unite vision is a platform for Anyone, Anywhere, Anytime with Everything in one place.

Esther now has access to information in one place, to track her symptoms, send messages to her MS team, check appointments and log her diet and exercise. When she experiences urinary symptoms she inputs them into the MS Unite platform which automatically sends her a home urine test kit. Once she has tested she has a virtual appointment at 4am with an MS nurse in Australia who advises on antibiotic treatment, which is then prescribed locally.

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Whats The Difference Between A Urinary Tract Infection And Bladder Infection

A urinary tract infection is a more general type of infection. There are many parts of your urinary tract. A UTI is a term for an infection that takes place throughout the urinary tract. A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is a specific infection. In this infection, bacteria makes its way into the bladder and causes inflammation.

Not all urinary tract infections become bladder infections. Preventing the spread of the infection is one of the most important reasons to treat a UTI quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can spread not only to the bladder, but also into your kidneys, which is a more complicated type of infection than a UTI.

What If The Infection Does Not Clear Up With Treatment

Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Most infections clear up with treatment. However, if an infection does not clear up, or if you have repeated infections, you may be given some special tests such as:

  • a type of x-ray called an intravenous pyleogram , which involves injecting a dye into a vein and taking pictures of your kidney and bladder

  • an ultrasound exam, which gives a picture of your kidneys and bladder using sound waves

  • a cytoscopic exam, which uses a hollow tube with special lenses to look inside the bladder.

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Can Pelvic Pain Be Prevented

Pelvic pain canât always be prevented. However, incorporating these recommendations into your daily life can help reduce your risk:

  • Donât overuse. Limit activities that require you to stand or walk for long periods of time.
  • Eat more fiber. This is particularly helpful if your pelvic pain is due to diverticulitis.
  • Exercise regularly. Staying physically active helps keep your joints and muscles in good condition.
  • Stretch your muscles. Warm up before exercising to help reduce the risk of pelvic pain.
  • Visit your healthcare provider regularly. Routine examinations can help your medical team detect issues early on before they worsen.

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How Many Is Too Many Utis

Three or more UTIs in one year indicates a recurrent infection, according to the ACOG.

Recurrent urinary tract infections are treated with antibiotics. A week or two after you finish the antibiotic treatment, your doctor may perform a urine test to make sure the infection is cured.

Your doctor may also ask you about factors that increase the risk of a recurrent UTI, including:

  • Young age at first UTI

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Vaccines Targeting Bacterial Adhesion

As adherence has a key role at nearly every step of UTI pathogenesis, one attractive strategy for the development of antivirulence therapies, including vaccines, has been to target CUP pili. As a general rule, vaccination with whole pili has been ineffective at generating an antibody response that can protect against UTIs. However, adhesin-based vaccines have been shown to be effective at blocking hostpathogen interactions, thus preventing the establishment of disease108112. Experiments using mouse and cynomolgus monkey models of UTIs determined that immunization with PapDPapG or FimCFimH chaperoneadhesin complexes protected against UTIs108112. The effectiveness of the FimCFimH vaccine was shown to be due, in large part, to antibodies that block the function of FimH in bladder colonization110. Furthermore, the anti-FimH antibodies did not seem to alter the E. coli niche in the gut microbiota109. Modifications of this vaccine are currently under development, with the aim of inducing greater immune stimulation108,112. For example, one approach has been to fuse FimH to the flagellin FliC in order to induce a more substantial acute inflammatory response, which functions through TLR4 signalling via the MYD88 pathway112. A Phase I clinical trial began in January 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of a FimCFimH vaccine using a synthetic analogue of monophosphoryl lipid A as the adjuvant.

Treatment For Recurrent Utis

Urinary tract infections in women

You can typically get rid of a simple UTI with antibiotics, the Mayo Clinic explains. But, when you have chronic UTIs, your doctor may recommend the following, per the Mayo Clinic:

  • Low-dose antibiotics, for six months but maybe longer

  • Self-diagnosis and treatment, if you stay in touch with your doctor

  • A single dose of an antibiotic after sex, if your recurrent UTIs are related to sex

  • Vaginal estrogen therapy, if youre postmenopausal

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    What Is The Prognosis For A Person With A Urinary Tract Infection

    Urinary tract infections typically respond very well to treatment. A UTI can be uncomfortable before you start treatment, but once your healthcare provider identifies the type of bacteria and prescribes the right antibiotic medication, your symptoms should improve quickly. Its important to keep taking your medication for the entire amount of time your healthcare provider prescribed. If you have frequent UTIs or if your symptoms arent improving, your provider may test to see if its an antibiotic-resistant infection. These are more complicated infections to treat and may require intravenous antibiotics or alternative treatments.

    What Are Chronic Urinary Tract Infections

    A chronic urinary tract infection is a repeated or prolonged bacterial infection of the bladder or urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.

    While urinary tract infections are common, some women suffer from repeated or recurrent infections .

    Women suffering from chronic urinary tract infections may have:

    • Two or more infections in a 6-month period and/or three or more infections in a 12-month period
    • Symptoms that don’t disappear within 24 to 48 hours after treatment begins
    • A urinary tract infection that lasts longer than two weeks

    Chronic urinary tract infections can be a painful and frustrating disorder, but effective treatment is available.

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    Why Do Women Get Utis More Often Than Men

    The main reason that urinary tract infections are more common in women is their anatomy. A womans urethra is much shorter than a mans, making it much easier for E. coli and other bacteria to reach the bladder in women. In other words, bacteria dont have to travel as far to reach in the bladder in women.

    Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti

    Preventing Urinary Tract Infections in Babies and Kids

    Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:

    • Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
    • Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.

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    Opportunity For Further Research

    A much greater number of patients than usually detected could be suffering from covert infection and are, currently, going unidentified and untreated. Bladder irritation caused by urinary stasis in patients with neurogenic bladder, may result in chronic microscopic pyuria and low-grade infection. Bacterial levels may not be elevated above normal on detailed urinalysis. However, epithelial cells, red blood cells, protein and white blood cells can be elevated or in the upper ranges of normal. Moreover, it has recently been shown that uroepithelial cells may harbor intracellular pathogens, which may be responsible for low-grade infection that is difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Remarkably, such intracellular pathogens may be quite distinct from those most commonly identified in urinary suspension .

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    Recurrent Utis In Kids: What Every Parent Should Know

    Another trip to the pediatrician? Another diagnosis of a urinary tract infection ? It seems like every time you turn around, your child has a UTI. If they keep getting recurrent UTIs, it can be frustrating and scary as a parent.

    UTIs happen when bacteria from a childs skin or stool get into the urinary tract and multiply. UTIs are also very common. About 8% of girls and 2% of boys will develop a UTI by the time they are 10 years old.

    It happens more commonly in girls than boys because the urethra in girls is much shorter, said Brenda Kronborg, DO, a pediatrician with Banner Children’s – Banner Health Clinic. Thus, the bacteria have a shorter distance to go and start the infection.

    While UTIs are common among babies and children, recurrent UTIs can have serious complications such as scarring on the kidneys. Its important to know how to spot the warning signs and get help for your child when they need it.

    Dr. Kronborg helps break down the signs and symptoms, treatment options and the ways you can help prevent future UTIs.

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    How Is A Uti Diagnosed

    To find out whether you have a UTI, your doctor or nurse will test a clean sample of your urine. This means you will first wipe your genital area with a special wipe. Then you will collect your urine in midstream in a cup. Your doctor or nurse may then test your urine for bacteria to see whether you have a UTI, which can take a few days.

    If you have had a UTI before, your doctor may order more tests to rule out other problems. These tests may include:

    • A cystogram. This is a special type of x-ray of your urinary tract. These x-rays can show any problems, including swelling or kidney stones.
    • A cystoscopic exam. The cystoscope is a small tube the doctor puts into the urethra to see inside of the urethra and bladder for any problems.

    How Are Utis Diagnosed

    Urinary incontinence

    Only a health care provider can treat urinary tract infections. The first thing a doctor will do is confirm that a person has a UTI by taking a clean-catch urine specimen. At the doctors office, youll be asked to clean your genital area with disposable wipes and then pee into a sterile cup.

    The sample may be used for a urinalysis or a urine culture . Knowing what bacteria are causing the infection can help your doctor choose the best treatment.

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    Prevention Of Utis In The Elderly

    Its important to address the issue in advance in the attempt to prevent UTIs in seniors. Several urinary tract infection prevention methods exist, including:

    • Reminding the individual to drink plenty of water , as proper hydration keeps the urinary tract in good health
    • Avoiding consumption of alcohol and caffeine as much as possible
    • Encouraging the senior to use the restroom frequently, at least every three hours
    • Promptly caring for soiled materials due to incontinence
    • Wiping from front to back when using the restroom
    • Promoting good hygiene, such as daily showers, and avoiding baths and special care should be taken if the senior citizen uses a urinary catheter

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