How Can Urinary Tract Infection In Men Be Prevented
The following factors may help prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Men or reduce the risk for an infection:
- Drinking large amounts of water to increase urination, which can help flush bacteria from the urinary tract
- Emptying the bladder after intercourse
- Maintain cleanliness and hygiene, especially before and after sexual activities
- Having safe sex, such as by using condoms and avoiding multiple partners
- Avoiding holding-in of the urine regularly: Postponing urination when there is an urge to urinate can cause pooling of urine within the bladder. Such pooling over a prolonged period of time can create an environment for favorable bacterial growth
- Keeping diabetes under control
- Sexual partners may also have to be treated for infections
- Individuals with poor immune system have to be additionally careful as they are higher prone to infections
How Urinary Tract Infections Are Treated In Men
Whether an infection affects a man or a woman, the treatment is the same: a round of antibiotics to kill the bacteria and get rid of UTI symptoms. For an uncomplicated infection, a woman typically needs to take an antibiotic for one to three days. For men, a longer course of at least seven days of antibiotics is required, says Trost.
Can Men Get Utis From Women
Men can get UTIs from women during sex, by getting the bacteria from a woman with the infection. However, this is unlikely.
Typically, the infection arises from bacteria that are already present in the mans body.
A doctor can diagnose a UTI by carrying out a physical examination, taking a medical history, and through laboratory tests.
The doctor may perform a physical examination that includes:
- checking the vital signs
- checking the abdomen, bladder area, sides, and back for pain or swelling
- examining the genitals
The doctor may ask if the person has had other UTIs in the past, or a family history of UTIs.
They may also question the person about their symptoms.
Laboratory tests are required to diagnose the infection as the symptoms of a UTI can be common to other diseases.
A urine sample is usually needed to look for the presence of pus and the bacteria causing the infection.
Men may be asked to give a urine sample. A man will need to start the urine stream to clean the urethra, and then collect a midstream sample in a cup. As bacteria multiply quickly at room temperature, this urine sample is either sent to the laboratory immediately or kept refrigerated until later.
The doctor may also ask for a urine test strip, also known as a urine dipstick test. This is a quick test in which a plastic or paper ribbon is dipped into the urine sample and then removed. If the person has a UTI, the ribbon will turn a particular color.
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What Can I Do To Prevent A Uti
- Empty your bladder often. Urinate and empty your bladder as soon as you feel the need. Do not hold your urine for long periods of time.
- Drink liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. You may need to drink more liquids than usual to help flush out the bacteria. Do not drink alcohol, caffeine, or citrus juices. These can irritate your bladder and increase your symptoms. Your healthcare provider may recommend cranberry juice to help prevent a UTI.
- Urinate after you have sex. This can help flush out bacteria passed during sex.
- Do pelvic muscle exercises often. Pelvic muscle exercises may help you start and stop urinating. Strong pelvic muscles may help you empty your bladder easier. Squeeze these muscles tightly for 5 seconds like you are trying to hold back urine. Then relax for 5 seconds. Gradually work up to squeezing for 10 seconds. Do 3 sets of 15 repetitions a day, or as directed.
Urine Infection In Men
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Most urine infections are caused by germs which come from your own bowel. They cause no harm in your bowel but can cause infection if they get into other parts of your body. Some bacteria lie around your back passage after you pass a stool . These bacteria sometimes travel to the tube which passes urine from your bladder and into your bladder. Some bacteria thrive in urine and multiply quickly to cause infection.
A urine infection is often called a urinary tract infection by doctors. When the infection is just in the bladder and urethra, this is called a lower UTI. If it travels up to affect one or both kidneys as well then it is called an upper UTI. This can be more serious than lower UTIs, as the kidneys can become damaged by the infection.
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In other cases the infection occurs for no apparent reason. There is no problem with the bladder, kidney, prostate gland, or defence system that can be identified.
In the average adult patient there should be a urine output of: 0.5-1 ml/kg/hr. This means that an average 70 kg man should produce 35-70 mls an hour.
Urine output decreases in older patients and the target urine output should be 0.25-0.5 ml/kg/hr. This means that a 70 kg man who is aged over 65 years should produce 17.5-35mls per hour.
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Uti Treatment During Pregnancy
Youâll take antibiotics for 3 to 7 days or as your doctor recommends. If your infection makes you feel uncomfortable, your doctor will probably start your treatment before you get your urine test results.
Your symptoms should go away in 3 days. Take all of your medication on schedule anyway. Donât stop it early, even if your symptoms fade.
Many common antibiotics — amoxicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin, for example — are considered safe for pregnant women. Your doctor wouldnât prescribe others, such as ciprofloxacin , sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, or trimethoprim , that can affect your babyâs development.
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Treated
Your health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
- How old you are
Treatment for UTIs may include:
- Other medications to ease pain
- Heat to ease pain
You may also need to make lifestyle changes such as:
- Drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract
- Avoiding coffee, alcohol, and spicy foods
- Quitting smoking
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A Pharmacist Can Help With Utis
You can ask a pharmacist about treatments for a UTI.
A pharmacist can:
- offer advice on things that can help you get better
- suggest the best painkiller to take
- tell you if you need to see a GP about your symptoms
Some pharmacies offer a UTI management service. They may be able to give antibiotics if they’re needed.
Urinary Tract Infections In Babies And Young Children
Babies and children are at risk of UTIs. These infections always need to be investigated as they may indicate a serious underlying condition, such as urinary reflux. Reflux is caused by a bladder valve problem allowing urine to flow back into the kidneys from the bladder. Reflux can cause the urine to stay inside the body increasing the risk of infection. It may lead to kidney scarring, which in turn leads to high blood pressure and sometimes kidney problems.
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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection In Men
Urinary tract infections involve the parts of the body the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra that produce urine and carry it out of the body. Urinary tract infections often are classified into two types based on their location in the urinary tract:
- Lower tract infections These include cystitis and urethritis . Lower urinary tract infections commonly are caused by intestinal bacteria, which enter and contaminate the urinary tract from below, usually by spreading from the skin to the urethra and then to the bladder. Urethritis also may be caused by microorganisms that are transmitted through sexual contact, including gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Another form of male urinary infection is prostatitis which is an inflammation of the prostate.
- Upper tract infections These involve the ureters and kidneys and include pyelonephritis . Upper tract infections often occur because bacteria have traveled upward in the urinary tract from the bladder to the kidney or because bacteria carried in the bloodstream have collected in the kidney.
How Does Infection Become Embedded In The Bladder
Infection-causing bacteria can attach to the bladder wall and form a 3-dimensional community called a biofilm. You can think of this as a protective shield which may prevent antibiotics, or the bodys immune response, from reaching the bacteria inside.
Bacteria can also colonize within the bladder wall, forming what are known as intracellular bacterial communities . IBCs have defense characteristics similar to biofilm, also making them difficult to treat. There is evidence for the involvement of both biofilms and IBCs in urinary tract infection, particularly for patients experiencing recurrent or chronic symptoms.
Bacteria residing within a biofilm are also more difficult to detect and may not be identified. This can be the case even with more sensitive testing methods. This means a prescribed antibiotic may not be appropriate for the bacteria present, even if it could permeate the biofilm.
Clinical guidelines for recurrent UTI do not generally account for the possibility of an embedded infection. This is one of the reasons that recurrent UTI treatment often fails.
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The Urinary Microbiome During Infection
Interestingly, when a UTI is present, additional bacterial species and/or a higher amount of bacteria overall, are usually found in the urine. These are believed to be the cause of infection.
In both females and males, Escherichia coli appears to be involved in the vast majority of UTI cases when standard cultures are used. According to one study, the following are the most common bacterial causes of UTI in men, after E. coli:
- Proteus species
Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas species, and several types of Staphylococci and Citrobacter species are also sometimes found, but are less common.
How Do I Know If The Treatment Isnt Working
If the treatment isnt working, your symptoms will stay the same, get worse, or you will develop new symptoms. Call your doctor if you have a fever , chills, lower stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting. You should also call your doctor if, after taking medicine for 3 days, you still have a burning feeling when you urinate. If you are pregnant, you should also call your doctor if you have any contractions.
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How To Know If I Have Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Recurrent urinary tract infections are cystitis, which are infections that affect the bladder and recur frequently, especially in women. These are recurrent cystitis. Almost 50% of women suffer from recurrent cystitis at some time during their lives.
The main symptoms are:
- Itching or stinging when urinating.
- Urgent and frequent need to urinate.
- Pain during urination and sexual intercourse.
- Pain in the hypogastrium .
- Cloudy urine with bad odor.
- Fever and chills.
- Nausea and vomiting.
There are other pathologies that can also cause repeated urinary tract infections in women and men, such as bladder and kidney tumors and, very often, the existence of lithiasis in the urinary tract. In men, prostate hyperplasia due to poor emptying of the bladder during urination.
Chronic Vs Recurrent Uti In Men
Historically, it was generally understood that recurrent UTI occurs when bacteria causing an initial infection have been completely eradicated with treatment. And following on from this, new bacteria re-infect the urinary tract.
However, more recent evidence indicates that it is also possible for pathogenic bacteria to remain in the urinary tract after treatment. This can occur even when symptoms clear up. Symptoms of infection may then flare up again after treatment, as the bacteria once again multiply. This is commonly called chronic, or persistent UTI.
If symptoms return after treatment, it may be a sign that the original infection has not been effectively addressed.
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Recommendations To Prevent Recurrent Cystitis
- Drink plenty of water: 2 liters per day.
- Frequent urination: do not hold the urge to urinate, urinate every 3 hours even if you do not feel like it, urinate without haste to ensure complete emptying of the bladder.
- Urinate after sexual intercourse to expel any germs that may be found in the urethra. In young women when post-coital cystitis occurs, it is advisable that the urologist recommends a treatment, sometimes in single doses.
- For vaginal hygiene use intimate soaps of neutral PH. Do not wash with intimate soap every time you urinate, as it alters the vaginal pH. Showering is better than bathing.
- Use cotton underwear and change quickly from wet bathing suit to avoid humidity. Use panty liners infrequently or change them frequently.
- Avoid coffee, alcohol, soft drinks, which are irritating substances for the bladder.
- Do not smoke.
When Should People Seek Medical Care For A Uti
Any adult or child who develops any of the symptoms of a urinary tract infection needs to be evaluated by a medical professional, preferably within 24 hours. Most medical offices can test urine for infection by using a quick urine dipstick test.
- Someone who has symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection should call a health care professional for an appointment, preferably on the same day that symptoms are recognized.
- Someone who has symptoms of an upper urinary tract infection involving the kidneys should call a health care professional immediately. Depending on the situation, he or she will recommend either a visit to the office or a hospital emergency department.
If someone has symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection and any of the following applies, he or she may be at risk for complications of the urinary tract infection.
- Vomiting and inability to keep down clear fluids or medication
- Not better after taking antibiotics for two days
- Having diabetes or another disease that affects the immune system
- Taking medication that suppresses the immune system such as cancer chemotherapy
Infants, children, and elderly people with any of the signs and symptoms of UTI should see their health care professional as soon as possible or go to an emergency department for evaluation.
The usual treatment for both simple and complicated urinary tract infections is antibiotics. The type of antibiotic and duration of treatment depends on the circumstances.
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Urinary Tract Infections In Women
UTIs are common, particularly with increasing age. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men. Nearly 1 in 3 women will have a UTI needing treatment before the age of 24.
In women, the urethra is short and straight, making it easier for germs to travel into the bladder. For some women, UTIs relate to changes in their hormonal levels. Some are more likely to get an infection during certain times in their menstrual cycle, such as just before a period or during pregnancy.
In older women, the tissues of the urethra and bladder become thinner and drier with age as well as after menopause or a hysterectomy. This can be linked to increased UTIs.
During pregnancy, the drainage system from the kidney to the bladder widens so urine does not drain as quickly. This makes it easier to get a UTI. Sometimes germs can move from the bladder to the kidney causing a kidney infection. UTIs during pregnancy can result in increased blood pressure, so it is very important to have them treated as soon as possible.
Women are more at risk of repeated UTIs if they:
- use spermicide jelly or diaphragm for contraception
- have had a new sexual partner in the last year
- had their first UTI at or before 15 years of age
- have a family history of repeated UTIs, particularly their mother
- suffer from constipation
How Are Urinary Abnormalities Diagnosed
It’s important for a doctor to rule out any underlying problems in the urinary system when a child gets UTIs repeatedly. Kids with recurrent infections should see a pediatric urologist to see what is causing the infections.
Some problems can be found before birth. Hydronephrosis that develops before birth can be seen in an ultrasound as early as 16 weeks. In rare cases, doctors may consider neonatal surgery if hydronephrosis affects both kidneys and is a risk to the fetus. Most of the time, though, doctors wait until after birth to treat the condition, because almost half of all cases seen prenatally disappear by the time a baby is born.
Doctors will closely watch the blood pressure of a newborn thought to have hydronephrosis or another urinary system abnormality, because some kidney problems can cause high blood pressure. Another ultrasound may be done to get a closer look at the bladder and kidneys. If the condition appears to be affecting both kidneys, doctors usually will order blood tests to check kidney function.
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Recognizing Uti Symptoms In Men
Some people dont have any symptoms with a urinary tract infection, which usually entails an inflammation of the bladder and can also involve an infection of the lower or upper urinary tract, and in more serious cases the kidneys. In addition, not every man, woman, or child who gets a UTI has typical UTI symptoms, but most do exhibit at least one or more signs of infection. And when men do get UTIs, their symptoms are generally not too different from those that women experience. Common UTI symptoms include: