What Is A Urinary Tract Infection In Men
Urinary tract infections involve the parts of the body the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra that produce urine and carry it out of the body. Urinary tract infections often are classified into two types based on their location in the urinary tract:
- Lower tract infections These include cystitis and urethritis . Lower urinary tract infections commonly are caused by intestinal bacteria, which enter and contaminate the urinary tract from below, usually by spreading from the skin to the urethra and then to the bladder. Urethritis also may be caused by microorganisms that are transmitted through sexual contact, including gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Another form of male urinary infection is prostatitis which is an inflammation of the prostate.
- Upper tract infections These involve the ureters and kidneys and include pyelonephritis . Upper tract infections often occur because bacteria have traveled upward in the urinary tract from the bladder to the kidney or because bacteria carried in the bloodstream have collected in the kidney.
How Are Chronic Utis Treated
If you have recurrent or chronic UTIs, your doctor may send you to a urologist who specializes in diseases of the urinary system. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, some of the ways that recurrent UTIs are evaluated and treated include:
- Testing The doctor will want to take a urine sample to test for bacteria and white blood cells. It may be necessary to do special X-ray studies to see if there is an obstruction or stones in the urinary tract. A urologist may look into your bladder by passing a special scope through the opening into your bladder. This exam is called cystoscopy.
- Antibiotics for Treatment Normally, UTIs responds very well to antibiotics, and you may only need to take medication for a few days. For recurrent UTIs, antibiotics may be needed for 10 days or more.
- Surgery In some cases of prostate disease, stones, or other obstruction of the urinary system, surgery may be done to restore normal flow of urine and help clear up infections.
- Antibiotics for Prevention Some strategies to prevent recurrent UTIs with antibiotics include taking low-dose antibiotics for six months or taking antibiotics after sexual intercourse.
- Frequent Urine Testing Women who have recurrent UTIs may benefit from testing their urine frequently with a dipstick that warns of any bacteria in the urine.
Seek Medical Attention For Utis
It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have a UTI particularly if you think you may have a bladder or kidney infection, both of which are very serious conditions. Early treatment of urinary infection can help to prevent infection spreading to the bladder or kidneys.
Your doctor will test your urine to check which micro-organism is present. Urinary tract infections usually respond quickly and well to antibiotics.
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Urinary Tract Infections In Boys
Urinary tract infections in boys are the result of bacteria getting into the bladder and staying there. UTIs are common in kids, especially girls and uncircumcised boys. E. Coli, responsible for over 75% of UTIs, doubles every 20 minutes in the bladder. That means if there are 100 bacteria of E. Coli in the bladder and you wait three hours to go to the bathroom, you will have over 50,000 bacteria in your bladder. The more bacteria in the bladder and the longer it stays there, the more likely you are to get a UTI.
There are many things that can be done to both treat urinary tract infections in boys and prevent them in the future.
What Conditions Are Related To Recurrent Utis
Recurrent UTIs sometimes happen along with other conditions, such as:
- vesicoureteral reflux , which is found in 30%50% of kids diagnosed with a UTI. In this congenital condition, pee flows backward from the bladder to the ureters. Ureters are thin, tube-like structures that carry pee from the kidney to the bladder. Sometimes the pee backs up to the kidneys. If it’s infected with bacteria, it can lead to pyelonephritis.
- hydronephrosis, which is an enlargement of one or both kidneys due to backup or blockage of urine flow. It’s usually caused by severe VUR or a blocked ureter. Some kids with hydronephrosis might need to take daily low doses of antibiotics to prevent UTIs until the condition producing hydronephrosis gets better or is fixed through surgery.
But not all cases of recurrent UTIs can be traced back to these body structure-related problems. For example, dysfunctional voiding when a child doesn’t relax the muscles properly while peeing is a common cause of UTIs. Not peeing often enough also can also increase a child’s risk for recurrent infections. Both dysfunctional voiding and infrequent urination can be associated with constipation.
Rarely, unrelated conditions that harm the body’s natural defenses, such as diseases of the immune system, also can lead to recurrent UTIs. Use of a nonsterile urinary catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract and also cause an infection.
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Urine Infection In Men
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Most urine infections are caused by germs which come from your own bowel. They cause no harm in your bowel but can cause infection if they get into other parts of your body. Some bacteria lie around your back passage after you pass a stool . These bacteria sometimes travel to the tube which passes urine from your bladder and into your bladder. Some bacteria thrive in urine and multiply quickly to cause infection.
A urine infection is often called a urinary tract infection by doctors. When the infection is just in the bladder and urethra, this is called a lower UTI. If it travels up to affect one or both kidneys as well then it is called an upper UTI. This can be more serious than lower UTIs, as the kidneys can become damaged by the infection.
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In other cases the infection occurs for no apparent reason. There is no problem with the bladder, kidney, prostate gland, or defence system that can be identified.
In the average adult patient there should be a urine output of: 0.5-1 ml/kg/hr. This means that an average 70 kg man should produce 35-70 mls an hour.
Urine output decreases in older patients and the target urine output should be 0.25-0.5 ml/kg/hr. This means that a 70 kg man who is aged over 65 years should produce 17.5-35mls per hour.
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How Are Recurrent Utis Treated
Treatment for recurrent UTIs depends on what’s causing them. Sometimes the answer is as simple as teaching a child to empty their bladder as soon as they have the urge to go.
If a condition like VUR is causing the infections, the solution is a bit more complicated. Kids with VUR must be watched closely, because it can lead to kidney infection and kidney damage. Most kids outgrow the condition. Some might need surgery to correct the reflux.
Some kids with VUR benefit from daily treatment with a small amount of antibiotics, which can also make surgery unnecessary. Kids with VUR should see a pediatric urologist, who can decide if antibiotic treatment is the best option.
In some cases, surgery is needed to correct VUR. The most common procedure is ureteral reimplantation, in which one or both of the ureters are repositioned to correct the backflow of urine from the bladder. This procedure requires only a small incision and, in some children, can be done using robotic-assisted laparoscopy. When surgery is necessary, the success rate is high, but not everyone is a good candidate for it.
Kids may be candidates for ureteral reimplantation if they:
- have an intolerance to antibiotics
- get recurrent infections while on antibiotic treatment
- have severe, or “high-grade,” reflux
- are older kids and teens with reflux
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How Does Infection Become Embedded In The Bladder
Infection-causing bacteria can attach to the bladder wall and form a 3-dimensional community called a biofilm. You can think of this as a protective shield which may prevent antibiotics, or the bodys immune response, from reaching the bacteria inside.
Bacteria can also colonize within the bladder wall, forming what are known as intracellular bacterial communities . IBCs have defense characteristics similar to biofilm, also making them difficult to treat. There is evidence for the involvement of both biofilms and IBCs in urinary tract infection, particularly for patients experiencing recurrent or chronic symptoms.
Bacteria residing within a biofilm are also more difficult to detect and may not be identified. This can be the case even with more sensitive testing methods. This means a prescribed antibiotic may not be appropriate for the bacteria present, even if it could permeate the biofilm.
Clinical guidelines for recurrent UTI do not generally account for the possibility of an embedded infection. This is one of the reasons that recurrent UTI treatment often fails.
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Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Treatments
Here are some treatments that are commonly used for successful treatment of chronic UTIs. Keep in mind that treatments employed will depend on the cause of the UTI:
- The primary treatment for UTIs is a course of antibiotics delivered over one week however, for chronic UTIs, if the patient takes low dose antibiotics long term or after sexual intercourse, it will help to prevent future UTIs.
- Along with prescribing antibiotics, the doctor may want to monitor the urinary system more closely using home urine tests. These are easy to do, and they are very effective at properly diagnosing the problem.
- Drinking cranberry juice and taking Vitamin C supplements can make your urine more acidic, which decreases the potential for bacteria growth while also keeping your heart and immune system healthy.
- If the chronic UTI occurs in combination with menopause, the patient may want to consider vaginal estrogen therapy in order to limit risk for future UTIs.
Consult your doctor before starting a treatment regimen. Chronic Urinary Tract Infections can be very painful, but with a little bit of time, the proper diagnosis, and patience, they can be a thing of the past.
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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Utis
Symptoms of a UTI can include:
- pain when peeing
- changes in how often a child needs to pee
- changes in the look or smell of pee
- lower belly pain
- lower back pain or discomfort
UTIs also can cause kids to wet their pants or the bed, even if they haven’t had these problems before. Infants and very young children may only show nonspecific signs, such as fever, vomiting, or decreased appetite or activity.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti
- Pain or burning when urinating
- An urge to urinate often, but not much comes out when you go
- Pressure in your lower abdomen
- Urine that smells bad or looks milky or cloudy
- Blood in the urine. This is more common in younger women. If you see blood in your urine, tell a doctor or nurse right away.
- Feeling tired, shaky, confused, or weak. This is more common in older women.
- Having a fever, which may mean the infection has reached your kidneys
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How Is A Uti Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will ask about your signs and symptoms. Your provider may press on your abdomen, sides, and back to check if you feel pain. You may need any of the following:
- Urinalysis will show infection and your overall health.
- Urine cultures may show which germ is causing your infection.
Seeing A Doctor For Dysuria
After a history and physical exam, your doctor may request lab tests to help diagnose the cause of your dysuria symptoms. Then you can begin targeted treatment.
To help determine the cause, the doctor may ask whether your painful urination:
- Started suddenly or gradually
- Occurred once or many times
- Is felt at the onset of urination
The doctor may also ask if your painful urination is accompanied by symptoms such as:
- Abnormal discharge
The doctor may also want to know if the painful urination is accompanied by changes in urine flow, such as:
- Difficulty initiating flow
- Increased frequency or need to urinate
And you may also be asked by your doctor if there are changes in urine character along with painful urination. These include changes in urine such as:
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Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the urinary tract.
The bacteria enter through the tube that carries pee out of the body .
Women have a shorter urethra than men. This means bacteria are more likely to reach the bladder or kidneys and cause an infection.
Things that increase the risk of bacteria getting into the bladder include:
do not use scented soap
do not hold your pee in if you feel the urge to go
do not rush when going for a pee try to fully empty your bladder
do not wear tight synthetic underwear, such as nylon
do not drink lots of alcoholic drinks, as they may irritate your bladder
do not have lots of sugary food or drinks, as they may encourage bacteria to grow
Urinary Tract Infections In Babies And Young Children
Babies and children are at risk of UTIs. These infections always need to be investigated as they may indicate a serious underlying condition, such as urinary reflux. Reflux is caused by a bladder valve problem allowing urine to flow back into the kidneys from the bladder. Reflux can cause the urine to stay inside the body increasing the risk of infection. It may lead to kidney scarring, which in turn leads to high blood pressure and sometimes kidney problems.
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Treatment From A Gp For Utis That Keep Coming Back
If your UTI comes back after treatment, you may have a urine test and be prescribed different antibiotics.
Your doctor or nurse will also offer advice on how to prevent UTIs.
If you keep getting UTIs and regularly need treatment, a GP may give you a repeat prescription for antibiotics.
If you have been through the menopause, you may be offered a vaginal cream containing oestrogen.
How Does It Occur
Normally the urinary tract does not have any bacteria or other organisms in it. Bacteria that cause UTI often spread from the rectum to the urethra and then to the bladder or kidneys. Sometimes bacteria spread from another part of the body through the bloodstream to the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection is less common in men than in women because the male urethra is long, making it difficult for bacteria to spread to the bladder.
Urinary tract infection may be caused by a sexually transmitted disease. Sometimes a stone in the urinary tract blocks the flow of urine and causes an infection. In older men, an enlarged prostate can cause a urinary tract infection by keeping urine from draining out of the bladder completely. Infection might also be caused by the use of a catheter used to drain the bladder or by urethral stricture, which is a narrowing of the urethra by scar tissue from previous infections or surgical procedures.
You may be more likely to have a UTI if you have diabetes or another medical problem that affects the immune system.
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Dog Peeing A Lot But Not Drinking
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A dogs frequent urination can indicate a health problem. It is possible that an increased frequency is indicative of a urinary tract infection, a bladder problem, kidney disease, bladder disease, liver disease, or diabetes.
If your dog suddenly appears to empty his bladder every hour on the hour, it could have an underlying health issue. Learn how to control your dogs frequent urination and how to treat a dog that frequently urinates. The three most common types of polyuria are increased urination and thirst. Dogs frequently urinate in order to relieve themselves, which can be caused by a variety of factors ranging from minor behavioral issues to significant health concerns. Puppy peeping is a social behavior that they use to communicate with one another. Senior dogs may have trouble swallowing their urine due to two urinary sphincters located in their urinary passages. Many people with a minor medical condition may urinate frequently. It is most likely due to the medication your dog is taking, as it causes sudden urine leakage. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to fatigue and increased thirst as a result of electrolyte imbalance.
Why Does My Dog Pee So Much On Walks
Most dogs like to pee on their walks as a sign of territory. This way, they can notify everyone about their location. There may be times when dogs mark territory under a tree as their own because no other dogs have done so.
You can scentmark a dog by taking his pee and sniffing it again after he poops. You may be perplexed as to why your dog keeps stopping to urinate a small amount over time. Over-marking occurs when a dog urinates over a spot where another has left before it. Men may urinate in and out of their homes in an attempt to impress a female dog, especially if she is in heat. The term serk marks refers to submissive, excited urination or housework. If your dog isnt house trained and hes still peeing indoors a lot, it could be due to excessive water consumption. If youre going for a walk with your dog, you should use a regular leash rather than a retractable one. Furthermore, he should not be left alone in the house without supervision. Dogs tend to pee multiple times on walks because they are likely scent-marked.
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